This mahogany desk was likely made by Thomas Constantine, a cabinetmaker from New York. Following the Capitols near destruction in 1814 by invading British forces, Constantine was paid for supplying the Senate with, among other items, one "Large Desk for President of Senate" as a cost of $140.
A similar style desk is depicted in engravings of the chamber that date as early as 1848. The desk was used by the Senate until 1859 when they vacated the room for their new chamber. Likely put into storage when the Supreme Court took over the space, the desk was later returned to the Senate in 1973 for the restoration of the historic room.