December 2, 1863: Thomas Crawford’s Statue of Freedom was installed atop the newly completed cast-iron Capitol dome, a symbolic event signifying the enduring nation in a time of civil war.
December 7, 1863: The 38th Congress convened in Washington.
January 25, 1864:The Senate adopted a rule requiring members to swear the so-called “Ironclad Test Oath,” a pledge of future loyalty as well as an affirmation of past fidelity to the country. Senator James A. Bayard of Delaware resigned in protest four days later.
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