The role of African Americans in Senate and Capitol history is not limited to those who served in elected office. One of the most lasting contributions of African Americans to Senate history, for example, came with the Capitol’s construction. Historical evidence shows that many of the laborers and artisans who built the Capitol were African American, both free and enslaved. Philip Reid’s mechanical expertise helped place the Statue of Freedom atop the Capitol Dome in 1863. Among the first African Americans to be hired in professional clerical positions were Robert Ogle and Jesse Nichols. As a Senate staff member, Christine McCreary challenged the de facto segregation of Capitol Hill in the 1950s and 1960s. Alfonso Lenhardt, who served as sergeant at arms from 2001 to 2003, was the first African American to hold one of the top two administrative positions in the Senate. On July 7, 2003, the Senate appointed Dr. Barry C. Black as Senate chaplain, another first for African Americans in the Senate.