Senate staff plays a vital role in the legislative process. During the debate over the civil rights bill in the spring of 1964, floor managers Hubert Humphrey and Thomas Kuchel and their staff organized regular bipartisan planning sessions in Humphrey’s leadership office. There senators and staff met, sometimes several times a week, to plot their strategy. Civil rights activist Burke Marshall of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and attorneys from the Department of Justice frequently joined the meetings. As legislative assistant to Senator Kuchel, Stephen Horn kept a periodic log of strategy meeting notes and other conversations throughout the course of the lengthy debate.