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Constitution of the United States


The Senate Chamber, 1859-2009

On January 4, 1859, sixty-six senators representing thirty-three states moved in procession into a large and beautiful Chamber, the centerpiece of a new Senate wing built in the 1850s.

The United States Senate in Session in Their New Chamber.
1859 Senate Chamber
110th Class Photo
110th Congress

Since 1789, when just twenty-two senators convened the first Senate, the number of senators had tripled as new states joined the Union and the Senate's old Chamber became crowded, noisy, and worn. News accounts of the event noted the solemn procession, the "finely proportioned" Chamber, and the colorful stained-glass ceiling. Spacious galleries accommodated up to 600 visitors and dignitaries. The Senate had a new home—a Chamber that would witness many historic debates, producing legislation that would reshape the nation.

Over the past 150 years, the Senate Chamber has undergone many changes. By the 1930s, age and decay threatened collapse of the old glass-paneled ceiling, and the Chamber's lighting and ventilation system needed modernizing. A mid-20th century renovation brought upgraded amenities and a clean, contemporary design. Cosmetic improvements in the 1980s provided a telegenic background as C-SPAN coverage of Senate proceedings began in 1986. Today, the Senate Chamber is a blend of old and new—of traditional and modern. It is a place where 19th-century mahogany desks and snuff boxes coexist with the computers and television cameras of the modern age.

Evolution of the Senate Chamber, 1859-2009

Past Feature Articles

Senate Historical Office

Historical information provided by the Senate Historical Office.

Senate's Institutional History

It was up to the first Senate in 1789 to organize, establish its rules, and set precedents that would govern its actions in years to come, evolving into a complex legislative body.