When a New Congress Begins
On January 3, 2013, the Senate convenes its first session of the 113th Congress. The proceedings of this first day follow a well established routine. Having presented their credentials to the Senate, newly elected and reelected senators are sworn in by the vice president . The Senate divided into three classes for election purposes, and every two years one-third of the Senate is elected or reelected. For this reason, only a third of the senators will take the oath on January 3 .
Because photography is prohibited in the Senate Chamber , following the official oath ceremony new senators join the vice president in the Old Senate Chamber where a reenactment of the swearing-in ceremony takes place. With the opening ceremony complete, the Senate proceeds with other business, such as the election of the president pro tempore and other officers as well as the assignment of desks in the chamber .
Unlike the House of Representatives, where all members face election every two years, the Senate does not have reorganize itself following each election, but it will adopt an organizing resolution early in the new Congress to set procedures for operating the Senate during the next two years. Typically, the adoption of this resolution is routine, but there have been occasions when the Senate faced unique challenges , making organization difficult . As January continues, the Senate turns to legislative business. With each new Congress, all pending legislation of the previous Congress expires (with the exception of treaties ), so many bills and resolutions are reintroduced. During the first weeks of the new Congress, most freshman senators mark an important milestone in their Senate careers by delivering their maiden speeches
To learn more about the opening day of a new Congress or other Senate traditions, visit these web pages: Frequently Asked Questions about a New Congress , Guide to Senate Traditions , or Learn about the Senate .
It was up to the first Senate in 1789 to organize, establish its rules, and set precedents that would govern its actions in years to come, evolving into a complex legislative body.