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Constitution of the United States


  
 
 
Supreme Court Nominations, 1789-present (present-1789) 
The Constitution requires the president to submit nominations to the Senate for its advice and consent. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, presidents have submitted 160 nominations for the Court, including those for chief justice. Of this total, 124 were confirmed (7 declined to serve). This chart lists nominations officially submitted to the Senate.
 

Nominee

To Replace

Nominated

Vote

Result & Date

President George Washington
John Jay1Sep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
John RutledgeSep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
William CushingSep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
Robert HarrisonSep 24, 1789DSep 26, 1789
James WilsonSep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
John BlairSep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
James IredellHarrisonFeb 8, 1790VCFeb 10, 1790
Thomas JohnsonRutledgeNov 1, 1791VCNov 7, 1791
William PatersonJohnsonFeb 27, 1793WFeb 28, 1793
William PatersonJohnsonMar 4, 1793VCMar 4, 1793
John Rutledge2JayDec 10, 179510-14RDec 15, 1795
William Cushing3JayJan 26, 1796DJan 27, 1796
Samuel ChaseBlairJan 26, 1796VCJan 27, 1796
Oliver Ellsworth4JayMar 3, 179621-1CMar 4, 1796
President John Adams
Bushrod WashingtonWilsonDec 19, 1798VCDec 20, 1798
Alfred MooreIredellDec 4, 1799VCDec 10, 1799
John Jay5EllsworthDec 18, 1800DDec 19, 1800
John Marshall6EllsworthJan 20, 1801VCJan 27, 1801
President Thomas Jefferson
William JohnsonMooreMar 22, 1804VCMar 24, 1804
H. Brockholst LivingstonPatersonDec 13, 1806VCDec 17, 1806
Thomas Todd(new seat)Feb 28, 1807VCMar 2, 1807
President James Madison
Levi LincolnCushingJan 2, 1811DJan 3, 1811
Alexander WolcottCushingFeb 4, 18119-24RFeb 13, 1811
John Quincy AdamsCushingFeb 21, 1811DFeb 22, 1811
Joseph StoryCushingNov 15, 1811VCNov 18, 1811
Gabriel DuvallChaseNov 15, 1811VCNov 18, 1811
President James Monroe
Smith ThompsonLivingstonDec 5, 1823VCDec 9, 1823
President John Quincy Adams
Robert TrimbleToddApr 11, 182627-5CMay 9, 1826
John CrittendenTrimbleDec 17, 182823-17PFeb 12, 1829
President Andrew Jackson
John McLeanTrimbleMar 6, 1829VCMar 7, 1829
Henry BaldwinWashingtonJan 4, 183041-2CJan 6, 1830
James WayneJohnsonJan 6, 1835VCJan 9, 1835
Roger TaneyDuvallJan 15, 183524-21PMar 3, 1835
Roger Taney7MarshallDec 28, 183529-15CMar 15, 1836
Philip BarbourDuvallDec 28, 183530-11CMar 15, 1836
William Smith(new seat)Mar 3, 183723-18DMar 8, 1837
John Catron(new seat)Mar 3, 183728-15CMar 8, 1837
President Martin Van Buren
John McKinley(new seat)Sep 18, 1837VCSep 25, 1837
Peter DanielBarbourFeb 26, 184125-5CMar 2, 1841
President John Tyler
John SpencerThompsonJan 9, 184421-26RJan 31, 1844
Reuben WalworthThompsonMar 13, 184427-20WJun 17, 1844
Edward KingBaldwinJun 5, 184429-18PJun 15, 1844
John SpencerThompsonJun 17, 1844WJun 17, 1844
Reuben Walworth8ThompsonJun 17, 1844NJun 17, 1844
Edward KingBaldwinDec 4, 1844WFeb 7, 1845
Reuben WalworthThompsonDec 4, 1844WFeb 4, 1845
Samuel NelsonThompsonFeb 4, 1845VCFeb 14, 1845
John ReadBaldwinFeb 7, 1845N
President James Polk
George WoodwardBaldwinDec 23, 184520-29RJan 22, 1846
Levi WoodburyStoryDec 23, 1845VCJan 31, 1846
Robert GrierBaldwinAug 3, 1846VCAug 4, 1846
President Millard Fillmore
Benjamin CurtisWoodburyDec 11, 1851VCDec 20, 1851
Edward BradfordMcKinleyAug 16, 1852N
Geoge BadgerMcKinleyJan 3, 1853WFeb 14, 1853
William MicouMcKinleyFeb 14, 1853N
President Franklin Pierce
John CampbellMcKinleyMar 21, 1853VCMar 22, 1853
President James Buchanan
Nathan CliffordCurtisDec 9, 185726-23CJan 12, 1858
Jeremiah BlackDanielFeb 5, 186125-26RFeb 21, 1861
President Abraham Lincoln
Noah SwayneMcLeanJan 21, 186238-1CJan 24, 1862
Samuel MillerDanielJul 16, 1862VCJul 16, 1862
David DavisCampbellDec 1, 1862VCDec 8, 1862
Stephen Field(new seat)Mar 6, 1863VCMar 10, 1863
Salmon Chase9TaneyDec 6, 1864VCDec 6, 1864
President Andrew Johnson
Henry StanberyCatronApr 16, 1866N
President Ulysses Grant
Ebenezer Hoar(new seat)Dec 14, 186924-33RFeb 3, 1870
Edwin Stanton10GrierDec 20, 186946-11CDec 20, 1869
William StrongGrierFeb 7, 1870CFeb 18, 1870
Joseph Bradley(new seat)Feb 7, 187046-9CMar 21, 1870
Ward HuntNelsonDec 3, 1872VCDec 11, 1872
George Williams11ChaseDec 1, 1873WJan 8, 1874
Caleb Cushing12ChaseJan 9, 1874WJan 13, 1874
Morrison Waite13ChaseJan 19, 187463-0CJan 21, 1874
President Rutherford Hayes
John HarlanDavisOct 16, 1877VCNov 29, 1877
William WoodsStrongDec 15, 188039-8CDec 21, 1880
Stanley MatthewsSwayneJan 26, 1881N
President James Garfield
Stanley MatthewsSwayneMar 14, 188124-23CMay 12, 1881
President Chester Arthur
Horace GrayCliffordDec 19, 188151-5CDec 20, 1881
Roscoe ConklingHuntFeb 24, 188239-12DMar 2, 1882
Samuel BlatchfordHuntMar 13, 1882VCMar 22, 1882
President Grover Cleveland
Lucius LamarWoodsDec 6, 188732-28CJan 16, 1888
Melville Fuller14WaiteApr 30, 188841-20CJul 20, 1888
President Benjamin Harrison
David BrewerMatthewsDec 4, 188953-11CDec 18, 1889
Henry BrownMillerDec 23, 1890VCDec 29, 1890
George Shiras, Jr.BradleyJul 19, 1892VCJul 26, 1892
Howell JacksonLamarFeb 2, 1893VCFeb 18, 1893
President Grover Cleveland
William HornblowerBlatchfordSep 19, 1893N
William HornblowerBlatchfordDec 5, 189324-30RJan 15, 1894
Wheeler PeckhamBlatchfordJan 22, 189432-41RFeb 16, 1894
Edward WhiteBlatchfordFeb 19, 1894VCFeb 19, 1894
Rufus PeckhamJacksonDec 3, 1895VCDec 9, 1895
President William McKinley
Joseph McKennaFieldDec 16, 1897VCJan 21, 1898
President Theodore Roosevelt
Oliver HolmesGrayDec 2, 1902VCDec 4, 1902
William DayShirasFeb 19, 1903VCFeb 23, 1903
William MoodyBrownDec 3, 1906VCDec 12, 1906
President William Taft
Horace LurtonPeckhamDec 13, 1909VCDec 20, 1909
Charles HughesBrewerApr 25, 1910VCMay 2, 1910
Edward White15FullerDec 12, 1910VCDec 12, 1910
Willis Van DevanterWhiteDec 12, 1910VCDec 15, 1910
Joseph LamarMoodyDec 12, 1910VCDec 15, 1910
Mahlon PitneyHarlanFeb 19, 191250-26CMar 13, 1912
President Woodrow Wilson
James McReynoldsLurtonAug 19, 191444-6CAug 29, 1914
Louis BrandeisLamarJan 28, 191647-22CJun 1, 1916
John ClarkeHughesJul 14, 1916VCJul 24, 1916
President Warren Harding
William Taft16WhiteJun 30, 1921VCJun 30, 1921
George SutherlandClarkeSep 5, 1922VCSep 5, 1922
Pierce ButlerDayNov 21, 1922N
Pierce ButlerDayDec 5, 192261-8CDec 21, 1922
Edward SanfordPitneyJan 24, 1923VCJan 29, 1923
President Calvin Coolidge
Harlan StoneMcKennaJan 5, 192571-6CFeb 5, 1925
President Herbert Hoover
Charles Hughes17TaftFeb 3, 193052-26CFeb 13, 1930
John ParkerSanfordMar 21, 193039-41RMay 7, 1930
Owen RobertsSanfordMay 9, 1930VCMay 20, 1930
Benjamin CardozoHolmesFeb 15, 1932VCFeb 24, 1932
President Franklin Roosevelt
Hugo BlackVan DevanterAug 12, 193763-16CAug 17, 1937
Stanley ReedSutherlandJan 15, 1938VCJan 25, 1938
Felix FrankfurterCardozoJan 5, 1939VCJan 17, 1939
William DouglasBrandeisMar 20, 193962-4CApr 4, 1939
Frank MurphyButlerJan 4, 1940VCJan 16, 1940
Harlan Stone18HughesJun 12, 1941VCJun 27, 1941
James ByrnesMcReynoldsJun 12, 1941VCJun 12, 1941
Robert JacksonStoneJun 12, 1941VCJul 7, 1941
Wiley RutledgeByrnesJan 11, 1943VCFeb 8, 1943
President Harry Truman
Harold BurtonRobertsSep 19, 1945VCSep 19, 1945
Fred Vinson19StoneJun 6, 1946VCJun 20, 1946
Tom ClarkMurphyAug 2, 194973-8CAug 18, 1949
Sherman MintonRutledgeSep 15, 194948-16COct 4, 1949
President Dwight Eisenhower
Earl Warren20VinsonJan 11, 1954VCMar 1, 1954
John HarlanJacksonNov 9, 1954N
John HarlanJacksonJan 10, 195571-11CMar 16, 1955
William Brennan, Jr.MintonJan 14, 1957VCMar 19, 1957
Charles WhittakerReedMar 2, 1957VCMar 19, 1957
Potter StewartBurtonJan 17, 195970-17CMay 5, 1959
President John Kennedy
Byron WhiteWhittakerApr 3, 1962VCApr 11, 1962
Arthur GoldbergFrankfurterAug 31, 1962VCSep 25, 1962
President Lyndon Johnson
Abe FortasGoldbergJul 28, 1965VCAug 11, 1965
Thurgood MarshallClarkJun 13, 196769-11  No.  240CAug 30, 1967
Abe Fortas21WarrenJun 26, 1968WOct 4, 1968
Homer ThornberryFortasJun 26, 1968WOct 4, 1968
President Richard Nixon
Warren Burger22WarrenMay 23, 196974-3  No.  35CJun 9, 1969
Clement Haynsworth, Jr.FortasAug 21, 196945-55  No.  154RNov 21, 1969
G. Harrold CarswellFortasJan 19, 197045-51  No.  122RApr 8, 1970
Harry BlackmunFortasApr 15, 197094-0  No.  143CMay 12, 1970
Lewis Powell, Jr.BlackOct 22, 197189-1  No.  439CDec 6, 1971
William RehnquistHarlanOct 22, 197168-26  No.  450CDec 10, 1971
President Gerald Ford
John Paul StevensDouglasNov 28, 197598-0  No.  603CDec 17, 1975
President Ronald Reagan
Sandra Day O'ConnorStewartAug 19, 198199-0  No.  274CSep 21, 1981
William Rehnquist23BurgerJun 20, 198665-33  No.  266CSep 17, 1986
Antonin ScaliaRehnquistJun 24, 198698-0  No.  267CSep 17, 1986
Robert BorkPowellJul 1, 198742-58  No.  348ROct 23, 1987
Anthony KennedyPowellNov 30, 198797-0  No.  16CFeb 3, 1988
President George H.W. Bush
David SouterBrennanJul 25, 199090-9  No.  259COct 2, 1990
Clarence ThomasMarshallJul 8, 199152-48  No.  220COct 15, 1991
President Bill Clinton
Ruth Bader GinsburgWhiteJun 14, 199396-3  No.  232CAug 3, 1993
Stephen BreyerBlackmunMay 17, 199487-9  No.  242CJul 29, 1994
President George W. Bush
John Roberts, Jr.O'ConnorJul 29, 2005WSep 6, 2005
John Roberts, Jr.24RehnquistSep 6, 200578-22  No.  245CSep 29, 2005
Harriet MiersO'ConnorOct 7, 2005WOct 28, 2005
Samuel Alito, Jr.O'ConnorNov 10, 200558-42  No.  2CJan 31, 2006
President Barack Obama
Sonia SotomayorSouterJun 1, 200968-31  No.  262CAug 6, 2009
Elena KaganStevensMay 10, 201063-37  No.  229CAug 5, 2010
 
This chart lists only nominations officially submitted to the Senate, and does not include nominations announced but never officially submitted (such as Douglas Ginsburg in 1987).
 
The date of the nomination is the date on the president’s letter to the Senate (except the undated 1937 Hugo Black letter). Some nominees may have been serving before this date under recess appointments.
 
Vote Key:Result Key:
89-7 No. 242 (for example) - Tally and roll call vote numberC - Confirmed and served (117) 25
V - Voice VoteD - Declined (7)
 N - No Action (9)
 P - Postponed (3)
 R - Rejected (12)
 W - Withdrawn (12)
 
  1. Nominated to chief justice.
  2. Offered his services as a replacement for the soon-to-retire John Jay in June 1795, so President Washington offered him a temporary commission (Senate was in recess). The Senate convened in December and voted on the nomination, making Rutledge the first rejected Supreme Court nominee and the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  3. Sitting justice nominated to chief justice, but declined and continued to serve as an associate justice.
  4. Nominated to chief justice.
  5. Nominated to chief justice.
  6. Nominated to chief justice.
  7. Nominated to chief justice.
  8. On motion to proceed to consider the nomination, an objection was made.
  9. Nominated to chief justice.
  10. Confirmed, but died before he took office.
  11. Unsuccessful nominee for chief justice.
  12. Unsuccessful nominee for chief justice.
  13. Nominated to chief justice.
  14. Nominated to chief justice.
  15. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  16. Nominated to chief justice.
  17. Nominated to chief justice.
  18. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  19. Nominated to chief justice.
  20. Nominated to chief justice.
  21. Sitting justice nominated to chief justice; nomination filibustered and withdrawn.
  22. Nominated to chief justice.
  23. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  24. Nominated to chief justice.
  25. 7 nominees (see D in Result Key) were confirmed, but declined to serve.
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