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 Senate Art & History Publications
 
Art Catalogues
United States Senate Catalogue of Fine Art . U.S. Senate Commission on Art. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.
To the surprise of many visitors, the interior of the U.S. Capitol abounds in magnificent art that rivals even its exterior architectural splendor. The United States Senate Catalogue of Fine Art, prepared by the Office of Senate Curator, marks the first time that the Senate has presented its entire collection of fine art in a publication, complete with color reproductions and informative text about the creation and background of each work.
United States Senate Catalogue of Graphic Art . U.S. Senate Commission on Art. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.
The United States Catalogue of Graphic Art marks the first comprehensive publication of the approximately 1,000 prints that constitute the Senate’s collection. Offering a variety of perspectives on the Senate of the 19th and 20th centuries, the prints provide insight into a time quite different than the media-saturated world of today.
 
Conferences & Committees
Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations (McCarthy Hearings, 1953-54). U.S. Congress, edited by Donald A. Ritchie and Elizabeth Bolling. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2003.

Wisconsin Republican senator Joseph R. McCarthy rocketed to public attention in 1950 with his allegations that hundreds of Communists had infiltrated the State Department and other federal agencies. McCarthy relentlessly continued his anticommunist campaign into 1953, when he gained a new platform as chairman of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations. Joseph McCarthy had appeared invincible when investigated by a Senate subcommittee in 1952, but by 1954 he had finally gone too far, convincing his Senate colleagues that his power must be curtailed. The publication, Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, is a transcript of the hearings that led to the censure of Senator McCarthy by his Senate colleagues.

Minutes of the Senate Democratic Conference: Fifty-eighth through the Eighty-eighth Congresses, 1903-1964. U.S. Congress, edited by Donald A. Ritchie. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1999.

In 1903, in an attempt to become a more organized group, the Democratic caucus elected its first chairman and secretary. Covering 60 years of caucus and later conference meetings, Minutes of the Senate Democratic Conference: Fifty-eighth through the Eighty-eighth Congresses provides insight into the inner workings of the Senate. The publication is organized by Congress with brief notes from the editor providing historical context. The minutes remain true to form with only minor typographical corrections.

Minutes of the Senate Republican Conference: Sixty-second Congress through Eighty-eighth Congress, 1911-1964. U.S. Congress, edited by Wendy Wolff and Donald A. Ritchie. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1999.

In April 1911 Senator Charles Curtis was elected secretary of the Republican caucus and was tasked with recording the formal minutes of the caucus’ meetings. Two years later Republican senators officially designated their meetings as conferences. Minutes of the Senate Republican Conference: Sixty-second Congress through Eighty-eighth Congress, 1911-1964 covers 53 years of conference meetings beginning with the 62nd Congress. The publication includes a history of the Senate’s party conferences, as well as brief statements by former Republican Conference Chairman Connie Mack (1993-2001) and Secretary of the Senate Gary Sisco (1996-2001).

 
Research Guides
Guide to Research Collections of Former United States Senators, 1789-1995. Karen Dawley Paul. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.

Guide to Research Collections of Former United States Senators, 1789-1995 provides a list of archival repositories housing former senators’ papers and related materials. This publication’s content can be accessed in the online Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress under the "Research Collections" menu option.

Senators of the United States: A Historical Bibliography. Jo Anne McCormick Quatannens. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.

Compiled by Senate historians, Senators of the United States: A Historical Bibliography lists scholarly works about U.S. senators. Bibliographies for all U.S. senators can be found in the online Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress under the menu option "Bibliography."

 
Room Histories
The U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Senate Historical Office and Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009.
This elegant space located on the first floor of the U.S. Capitol has been home to the Senate Committee on Appropriations since 1911. This brochure contains a brief history of the rooms in the suite, the committee and its chairmen, and the murals that adorn the committee's walls.
The Brumidi Corridors. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006.
The Brumidi Corridors are richly painted hallways on the first floor of the Senate wing of the Capitol. Designed and painted by Italian artist Constantino Brumidi and his assistants, the halls are decorated with classically inspired images and symbolic representations of American culture. This brochure introduces the artist and highlights the various thematic sections of the corridors he painted.
The U.S. Senate Democratic Leader's Suite. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2007.
The Democratic Leader's Suite is located across the hall from the Senate Chamber. This brochure highlights the history of the suite and the various decorative elements adorning its rooms.
The U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Senate Historical Office and Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009.
Established in 1816, the Foreign Relations Committee is one of the 10 original standing committees of the Senate. Found within this pamphlet are a brief history of the committee, short biographies of selected committee chairmen, and a list of rooms where the committee has been located.
The Kennedy Caucus Room. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2010.

The Kennedy Caucus Room of the Russell Senate Office Building is one of the grandest and most historic rooms in the nation’s capital.

The Lyndon Baines Johnson Room. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1997.
The Lyndon Baines Johnson Room was originally built as the Senate Library reading room as part of the 1859 Senate extension to the Capitol. It retains many of its original features, including murals by Constantino Brumidi, a marble mantel, and Minton floor tiles. This brochure offers a brief history of the room and its decorative elements.
The Old Senate Chamber, 1810-1859. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009.
During its residence in this chamber from 1810 to 1859, the Senate grew from a small advisory council to the primary forum for the great national debates of the mid-19th century--an era known as the Senate's "Golden Age." The brochure provides a brief overview of some of the historical events that occurred in the room, as well as an overview of its architecture and art.
The Old Supreme Court Chamber, 1810-1860. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
Located on the ground floor of the original north wing of the Capitol, this space first served as the Senate Chamber (1800-1808), then as the Supreme Court Chamber (1810-1860). This brochure tells the story of the Old Supreme Court Chamber by highlighting several historical events as well as the art and architecture of the chamber.
The President's Room. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
In 1789 President George Washington wrote to the U.S. Senate recommending a chamber "for the joint business of the President and the Senate." Although the Capitol's early architects planned for such a room, it was not until extensions were added to the building in the 1850s that one was finally built. Providing a brief history of the room, this brochure is a look behind the doors of one of the Capitol's most stunning rooms.
The U.S. Senate Republican Leader's Suite. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2007.
The Republican Leader's Suite is located in the oldest section of the U.S. Capitol. Over the past 200 years, it has been rebuilt and modified many times and used for many different purposes. This brochure highlights the history of the suite and its occupants.
United States Capitol Room S-219. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
Built as part of the extension of the Capitol in the 1850s, Room S-219 has been used over the years by the Senate Appropriations Committee, Official Reporters of Debates, and Secretary of the Senate. Highlighted in this brochure are a brief history of the room's occupants and an overview of its architectural and decorative features.
United States Senate Chamber, 1859-2009. U.S. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009.

For 150 years the Senate has occupied its current Chamber in the United States Capitol, a room that has witnessed some of the most significant events in American history. United States Senate Chamber, 1859-2009 looks at the history of the room through its first 150 years.

The Strom Thurmond Room. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
Named for Senator Strom Thurmond in 1991, this room exemplifies the Capitol's long and varied history. Found within this brochure is a history of the room, including a list of its many occupants and an overview of the room's decorative elements.
The Senate Vestibule. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Office of Senate Curator and Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
The Senate Vestibule served as the main entrance to the Capitol in 1800. Highlighted in this brochure is the history of this space and its fascinating architectural and artistic characteristics.
The Vice President's Room. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
Under the U.S. Constitution the vice president of the United States serves as president of the Senate. For over 125 years, the Vice President's Room has provided a convenient and elegant Capitol working space for the vice president.
 
Senate Buildings
The Dirksen Senate Office Building. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006.

The federal government’s expanded role nationally and internationally beginning in the 1930s raised new issues for senatorial action, which in turn required increased staff assistance and created crowded conditions in the Capitol and the original Senate Office Building. In 1941, the U.S. Senate authorized the Architect of the Capitol to prepare plans for the creation of a second office building. The plans were approved in 1949 and construction started in 1956 with the doors opening for business on October 15, 1958. The Dirksen Senate Office Building brochure provides a brief overview of the building's history.

The Hart Senate Office Building. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2006.

Sweeping legislative reorganization during the 1970s expanded the Senate staff and stimulated construction of a third office building, named for Michigan senator Philip A. Hart. The Hart Senate Office Building brochure provides a brief overview of the building's history.

The Russell Senate Office Building: The First Century, 1909-2009. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009.

The 20th century brought new states, new members, and a burgeoning staff to cope with the increased legislative workload. The need for working space in the Capitol grew accordingly. In 1909 the Senate Office Building was opened. The brochure, The Russell Senate Office Building: The First Century, 1909-2009 provides an overview of the history of the building.

 
Senate History
200 Notable Days. Richard A. Baker. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2006.

200 Notable Days: Senate Stories 1787-2002 includes essays about the landmark days that shaped the Senate as an institution. Arranged chronologically, this book of days collectively reveals the character of the "World's Greatest Deliberative Body." These essays and many more can be found on the Senate's website in the Art & History section under Historical Minute Essays.

Capitol Builder: The Shorthand Journal of Montgomery C. Meigs, 1853-1859, 1861.. U.S. Congress, edited by Wendy Wolff. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2001.

Montgomery C. Meigs helped to shape the architectural and artistic designs of the House and Senate wings throughout the 1850s expansion of the Capitol. In the publication, Capitol Builder, Meigs’ daily journal entries detail the day-to-day building operations involved in the project, as well as his personal thoughts about his public and private life, discussions of family relationships, and his political views of the era and its personalities.

United States Senate Election, Expulsion, and Censure Cases, 1793-1990. Anne M. Butler and Wendy Wolff. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.

Article 1, Section 5, of the U.S. Constitution provides that, "Each House [of Congress] may determine the Rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member." The Constitution also gives each house of Congress the power to be the judge of "elections, returns, and qualifications of its members." This publication compiles and explains the various election, expulsion, and censure cases that the Senate engaged in from 1793 to 1990. An updated version of the publication is available on the Senate's website.

Historical Almanac of the United States Senate. Robert J. Dole. Edited by Wendy Wolff and Richard A. Baker. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1989.

Historical Almanac of the United States Senate was prepared in honor of the bicentennial of the creation of the Senate. The work includes a series of "bicentennial minutes," speeches given by Senator Robert Dole describing the first 200 years of the Senate.

The Senate, 1789-1989. Robert C. Byrd. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1988-[1994].

The Senate, 1789-1989 is a four-volume work that provides an in-depth history of the Senate. The first volume is a chronological series of addresses on the history of the Senate. Volume two follows with a topical series of addresses on various aspects of the Senate's operation and powers. The third volume is a compilation of "Classic Speeches, 1830-1993." The final volume provides historical statistics about the Senate from 1789-1992. Much of the content has been reproduced and updated on the Senate website in the Art & History and Reference sections.

The Senate's Civil War. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2011.

The U.S. Senate played a crucial role in the Civil War. Although the history of the war is often told from the perspective of President Abraham Lincoln and his military commanders, the Senate faced war-related issues before Lincoln took office, and continued to influence national events throughout the war and its aftermath. The booklet The Senate's Civil War provides an overview of the history of the Senate during this remarkable time in American History.

Creation of the Senate: From the Proceedings of the Federal Convention Philadelphia, May-September 1787. US Senate. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1987.

In 1937, George J. Schulz, the director of the Legislative Reference Service, prepared the document, Creation of the Senate: From the Proceedings of the Federal Convention Philadelphia, May-September 1787. The document details the history of the Constitutional Convention and the creation of the U.S. Senate. Included in this version of the document is the 1987 resolution calling for the reprinting of the original document, as well as an introduction by Senators Robert C. Byrd and Robert Dole.

 
Senators & Senate Officers
Pro Tem. Senate Historical Office. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2008.

Pro Tem: Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate since 1789, traces the development of the position in four brief essays which are accompanied by biographical profiles of all presidents pro tempore (1789-2010) including images for nearly all individuals who have served in this important position. The stories demonstrate the evolving nature of the Senate as well as its attempt to maintain many of its 18th-century ideals.

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Washington, DC: GPO, 2005.

This work contains biographies of over 12,000 individuals. The origins of the Biographical Directory go back to 1859, when Charles Lanman, an author and former secretary to Senator Daniel Webster, assembled the first collection of biographies of former and sitting members for his "Directory of Congress." With the creation of the Senate Historical Office in 1975 and the House Office of the Bicentennial in 1983, professional historians assumed the responsibility for revising and updating the Directory. The print edition covers all members of Congress from 1774-2005. The online edition is a searchable database and is updated at each change of Congress or change in membership. To learn more about this publication see, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789-1993. Mark O. Hatfield, edited by Wendy Wolff. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1997.

Holding the least understood, most ridiculed, and most often ignored constitutional office in the federal government, American vice presidents have included some remarkable individuals. Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789-1993 provides an overview of the constitutional origins of the position of vice president, and examines how the position has changed throughout U.S. history. Also found within the publication is a closer examination of the distinguished individuals who held the title of Vice President of the United States. This publication is available online with up-to-date content in the Art & History section under "Officers & Staff."

Senators of the United States: A Historical Bibliography. Jo Anne McCorkmick Quatannens. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.

Compiled by Senate historians, Senators of the United States: A Historical Bibliography lists scholarly works about U.S. senators. Bibliographies for all U.S. senators can be found in the online Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress under the menu option "Bibliography."

 
Special Collections
The U.S. Senate Leadership Portrait Collection. Prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Senate by the Senate Historical Office and the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2007.
To honor its past leaders, the U.S. Senate established the Senate Leadership Portrait Collection. This brochure provides an overview of the collection and a complete list of the Senate's floor leaders.
Russell Senate Office Building Furniture. U.S. Senate Commission on Art. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2008.
In 1909 the newly built Russell Senate Office Building officially opened. Along with the new building came a set of custom-made mahogany furniture for each office and committee room. The Russell furnishings, numbering thousands of pieces, were the largest single furniture contract issued by the Senate. This brochure provides a detailed account of the furniture's acquisition and use, illustrated by historical photographs and floor plans.
Senate Art in Stamps. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002.
Over 30 U.S. postal stamps depict art from the Senate's collection. The art in the Capitol is a fitting source for stamp designs, as it commemorates many of the nation's distinguished leaders and significant events.
Vice Presidential Bust Collection. Prepared under the direction of the U.S. Senate Commission on Art by the Office of Senate Curator. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2009.
Initiated in 1885 the U.S. Senate's Vice Presidential Bust Collection is the Senate's oldest continuing art collection. It provides a unique survey of American sculpture from the 19th century to the present.