How many ethnic minorities have served in the Senate? This list includes all African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans and North American Indians who have served in the United States Senate.
The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution (1913) established direct election of senators, as well as a means of filling vacant Senate seats. If a vacancy occurs due to a senator's death, resignation, or expulsion, the Seventeenth Amendment allows state legislatures to empower the governor to appoint a replacement to complete the term or to hold office until a special election can take place. This list of appointed senators includes name, state, party, date of appointment, and whether or not the person was subsequently elected to the seat.
While most U.S. senators have been affiliated with one of the major political parties, many members of the Senate have represented a third or other minor party. This list provides the names, service dates, and political party affiliation of the Senate's many independent members.
Congress sets the salaries of the President, Supreme Court justices, as well as Representatives and Senators, and the Constitution requires that those salaries be paid from the national treasury. During the First Congress, Senators and Representatives set their salary at six dollars per diem for every day that Congress met. In 1856, Congress set an annual salary for its members, replacing the old per diem pay system.
To date, 16 senators have also served as president of the United States. Three senators, Warren G. Harding, John F. Kennedy, and Barack Obama moved directly from the U.S. Senate to the White House.
Since it first convened in 1789, nearly 2000 individuals have served in the United States Senate. The following featured biographies provide a look at the varied experiences and accomplishments of some of these individuals, highlighting the Senate service of selected U.S. senators.