The United States Constitution (Article I, Section I) grants all legislative powers to the Congress, which consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate also has "advise and consent" privileges in matters of treaties and nominations. The sources listed below include descriptions of the legislative process, a compendium of Senate rules and procedures, and a more detailed analysis of specific aspects of the process.
Guide to Senate Legislative Processes (Congressional Research Service, Feb. 2002)
Nominations -- The Senate has the responsibility to review and approve or reject presidential appointees to executive and judicial branch posts. Learn more about the history of the Nomination Process from this article by the Senate Historian.
Treaties -- The Constitution gives the Senate the power to approve, by a two-thirds vote, treaties made by the executive branch. Learn more about Treaties from this article on the Senate History page.
Filibuster and Cloture -- Using the filibuster to delay debate or block legislation has a long history. This article discusses the origin of the filibuster and some of its most famous applications.