Months after the Texas Revolution had begun, Texas officially declared its independence from Mexico. Four days later a group of Texas settlers were defeated by Mexican troops at the Battle of the Alamo, near modern-day San Antonio.
The Texas army, led by future senator Sam Houston, decisively defeated the Mexican army, led by their president, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana, at the Battle of San Jacinto, near modern-day Houston. Weeks later a peace agreement was signed allowing for the creation of the Republic of Texas.
Former congressman and Tennessee governor Samuel Houston became the first president of the Republic of Texas. Houston, originally from Rockbridge County, Virginia, served in that position until 1838 and again from 1841 to 1844. He later represented Texas in the United States Senate.
The Senate voted 27 to 25 in favor of a joint resolution consenting to the annexation of the Republic of Texas. The resolution also provided the conditions for the admission of the State of Texas into the Union.
Texas became the 28th state in the Union.
Thomas Rusk presented his credentials and took his oath of office on the Senate floor. Houston did the same on March 30, following which the senators drew lots to determine their class assignments. Senator Houston drew Class 1, with a term to expire March 3, 1847. Senator Rusk drew Class 3, with a term to expire March 3, 1851.
The Senate voted 40 to 2 in favor of a bill (H.R. 145) officially declaring a state of war with Mexico. The U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848) was fought primarily over the annexation of Texas.
Texas, after a voter referendum, seceded from the Union.
Senators John Hemphill and Louis T. Wigfall were expelled from the Senate, along with eight other senators, for disloyalty to the Union. Hemphill went on to represent Texas in the Confederate Congress as did Wigfall, who also served in the Confederate army. Texas's two Senate seats remained vacant until 1870.
After Texas was allowed to resume representation in the U.S. Congress, Morgan C. Hamilton of Austin and James W. Flanagan of Flanagans Mills were administered the oath of office and took their seats. Due to the Civil War, they were the first senators from Texas since 1861.
James W. Flanagan became chairman of the Senate Committee on Education and Labor (today's Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions), a position he held until 1875.
Marble statues of Stephen F. Austin and Sam Houston were added to the Capitol's National Statuary Hall Collection. Austin, originally from Austinville, Virginia, is known as the founder of the State of Texas. Sam Houston was a soldier-statesman who fought in the War of 1812, served as a congressman, governor of Tennessee, president of the Republic of Texas, senator, and governor of the State of Texas.
The Senate voted to settle the contested 1922 election between George E. B. Peddy and Earle B. Mayfield of Austin. After a year-long investigation, a recount of disputed ballots, and a Senate review of state primary election regulations, the Senate voted for Mayfield to retain his seat.
Texan Chesley W. Jurney became the Senate sergeant at arms, a position he held until January 31, 1943, when he withdrew his name from consideration after becoming embroiled in a conflict between the Senate's majority leader and a filibustering senator.
Morris Sheppard, Texas's longest-serving senator, died while still in office. Senator Sheppard first took his oath of office on February 3, 1913, and served continuously for over 28 years.
Andrew Jackson Houston took the oath of office and made history, at the age of 86, as the oldest freshman senator ever. Senator Houston was the son of one of Texas's first senators, Samuel Houston. He had been appointed by Texas governor W. Lee (Pappy) O'Daniel on April 21, 1941, to the fill the vacancy caused by the death of Morris Sheppard. O'Daniel went on to win the special election to fill the vacancy, and began serving on August 4, 1941.
Senator Lyndon B. Johnson was elected Democratic leader, Conference chairman, and Policy Committee chairman. Two years later, Johnson became majority leader, a position he held until his resignation in 1961.
Lyndon B. Johnson became chairman of the newly created Senate Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences (today's Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation), a position he held until 1961.
Former senator Samuel Houston was featured on a five-cent U.S. postage stamp. Houston had previously been depicted on a three-cent stamp in 1936 to commemorate the centennial of Texas independence.
Senator Ralph W. Yarborough of Austin got into a wrestling match with Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina outside a Senate committee room. Senator Thurmond had been attempting to block access to the room to prevent a vote. The two 61 year old men grappled on the floor before the committee chairman, Senator Warren Magnuson of Washington, separated them.
A marble bust of former vice president Lyndon B. Johnson by sculptor JIMILU mason (granddaughter of Illinois senator William E. Mason) was completed. The formal addition of the bust to the Senate Vice Presidential Bust Collection was delayed by protocol, as former vice president Richard M. Nixon's bust had yet to be unveiled. In 1969 a copy of the bust went on display at the National Portrait Gallery in place of Johnson's official portrait, which he had deemed "the ugliest thing I ever saw."
Former senator, vice president, and president Lyndon B. Johnson was featured on an eight-cent U.S. postage stamp. Based on a portrait of Johnson by artist Elizabeth Shoumatoff, the stamp was unveiled on what would have been Johnson's 65th birthday. Johnson was featured again on a twenty-two-cent stamp in 1986.
Former senator and vice president Lyndon B. Johnson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Jimmy Carter. The medal is one of the country's highest civilian awards and is bestowed upon individuals who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors."
Senator Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. ran unsuccessfully for vice president on the Democratic ticket with presidential candidate Michael Dukakis, the Massachusetts governor. They lost the election to the incumbent vice president, George H. W. Bush and his running mate, Indiana senator Dan Quayle.
Senator Phil Gramm of College Station was elected chairman of the Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee, a position he held until 1995.
Phil Gramm became chairman of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, a position he held until 2001.
Former senator Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Bill Clinton. The medal is one of the country's highest civilian awards and is bestowed upon individuals who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors."
Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison of Galveston, who became Texas's first woman senator in 1993, was elected Republican Conference vice chair (formerly the Republican Conference secretary), and became the first woman to hold a leadership position among Senate Republicans. She served as conference vice chair until 2007, when she became chair of the Republican Policy Committee, a position she held until 2009..
Senator John Cornyn was elected Republican Conference vice chair, a position he held until 2009, when he became chairman of the Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee. In December 2012, he was elected Republican whip for the 113th Congress.