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Appointed Senators

Photo of Sam Ervin
Senator Sam Ervin (Senate Historical Office)



The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution (1913) established direct election of senators, as well as a means of filling vacant Senate seats. If a vacancy occurs due to a senator's death, resignation, or expulsion, the Seventeenth Amendment allows state legislatures to empower the governor to appoint a replacement to complete the term or to hold office until a special election can take place. There are a few exceptions to this rule. Some states require a special election to fill a vacancy. A few states require the governor to appoint a replacement of the same political party as the previous incumbent. The date when a senator appointed to fill a vacancy is succeeded by a senator elected to fill the remainder of the term depends on a number of factors. For more information on how vacancies are filled, see this Report (pdf) from the Congressional Research Service and the Senate Document The Term of Senator: When Does It Begin and End? (pdf).

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Appointed Senators since 1913

Rienzi M. Johnston (D-TX)
Date Appointed: January 4, 1913
Elected: Did not seek election.

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John N. Heiskell (D-AR)
Date Appointed: January 6, 1913
Elected: Did not seek election.

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William S. West (D-GA)
Date Appointed: March 2, 1914
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Johnson N. Camden, Jr. (D-KY)
Date Appointed: June 16, 1914
Elected: Yes, on November 3, 1914.

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Thomas Taggart (D-IN)
Date Appointed: March 20, 1916
Elected: No, was defeated on November 7, 1916.

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Charles L. McNary (R-OR)
Date Appointed: May 29, 1917
Elected: Yes, to full term beginning March 4, 1918. Was not a candidate in the special election on the same date to fill remainder of term ending March 3, 1918, but was subsequently appointed to fill remainder of the term ending March 3, 1918.

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Charles B. Henderson (D-NV)
Date Appointed: January 12, 1918
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1918.

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John F. Nugent (D-ID)
Date Appointed: January 22, 1918
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1918.

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David Baird (R-NJ)
Date Appointed: February 23, 1918
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1918.

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Walter Guion (D-LA)
Date Appointed: April 22, 1918
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Xenophon P. Wilfley (D-MO)
Date Appointed: April 30, 1918
Elected: No, did not win nomination.

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Christie Benet (D-SC)
Date Appointed: July 6, 1918
Elected: No, defeated on November 5, 1918.

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Irving W. Drew (R-NH)
Date Appointed: September 2, 1918
Elected: Did not seek election.

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George B. Martin (D-KY)
Date Appointed: September 7, 1918
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Carter Glass (D-VA)
Date Appointed: November 18, 1919
Elected: Yes, on November 3, 1920.

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Braxton B. Comer (D-AL)
Date Appointed: March 5, 1920
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Holm O. Bursum (R-NM)
Date Appointed: March 11, 1921
Elected: Yes, on September 20, 1921.

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Thomas Coleman du Pont (R-DE)
Date Appointed: July 7, 1921
Elected: No, defeated on November 7, 1922.

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William E. Crow (R-PA)
Date Appointed: October 17, 1921
Elected: Did not seek election.

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George W. Pepper (R-PA)
Date Appointed: January 9, 1922
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 1922.

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Charles A. Rawson (R-IA)
Date Appointed: February 24, 1922
Elected: Did not seek election.

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David A. Reed (R-PA)
Date Appointed: August 8, 1922
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 1922.

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Rebecca L. Felton (D-GA)
Date Appointed: October 3, 1922
Elected: Did not seek election.

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James Couzens (R-MI)
Date Appointed: November 29, 1922
Elected: Yes, on November 4, 1924

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Alva B. Adams (D-CO)
Date Appointed: May 17, 1923
Elected: No, defeated on November 4, 1924 (not a candidate in special election of same date)

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William M. Butler (R-MA)
Date Appointed: November 13, 1924
Elected: No, defeated on November 2, 1926.

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George H. Williams (R-MO)
Date Appointed: May 25, 1925
Elected: No, defeated on November 2, 1926.

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Arthur R. Robinson (R-IN)
Date Appointed: October 20, 1925
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 1926

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Gerald P. Nye (R-ND)
Date Appointed: November 14, 1925
Elected: Yes, on June 30, 1926

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David W. Stewart (R-IA)
Date Appointed: August 7, 1926
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 1926.

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Bronson Cutting (R-NM)
Date Appointed: December 29, 1927
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Arthur H. Vandenberg (R-MI)
Date Appointed: March 31, 1928
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1928.

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Cyrus Locher (D-OH)
Date Appointed: April 4, 1928
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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John Thomas (R-ID)
Date Appointed: June 30, 1928
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1928.

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Daniel O. Hastings (R-DE)
Date Appointed: December 10, 1928
Elected: Yes, on November 4, 1930.

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Henry J. Allen (R-KS)
Date Appointed: April 1, 1929
Elected: No, defeated on November 4, 1930.

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William E. Brock (D-TN)
Date Appointed: September 2, 1929
Elected: Yes, on November 4, 1930.

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Roscoe C. McCulloch (R-OH)
Date Appointed: November 5, 1929
Elected: No, defeated on November 4, 1930.

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David Baird, Jr. (R-NJ)
Date Appointed: November 30, 1929
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Patrick J. Sullivan (R-WY)
Date Appointed: December 5, 1929
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Joseph R. Grundy (R-PA)
Date Appointed: December 11, 1929
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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John M. Robsion (R-KY)
Date Appointed: January 9, 1930
Elected: No, defeated in election for the vacancy and for full term on November 4, 1930.

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Cameron Morrison (D-NC)
Date Appointed: December 13, 1930
Elected: No, failed to win nomination.

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Frank C. Partridge (R-VT)
Date Appointed: December 23, 1930
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Hattie W. Caraway (D-AR)
Date Appointed: November 13, 1931
Elected: Yes, on January 12, 1932.

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W. Warren Barbour (R-NJ)
Date Appointed: December 1, 1931
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1932.

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John S. Cohen (D-GA)
Date Appointed: April 25, 1932
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Walter Walker (D-CO)
Date Appointed: September 26, 1932
Elected: No, defeated on November 8, 1932.

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Elijah S. Grammer (R-WA)
Date Appointed: November 22, 1932
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Nathan L. Bachman (D-TN)
Date Appointed: February 28, 1933
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1934.

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Harry F. Byrd (D-VA)
Date Appointed: March 4, 1933
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 1933.

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John E. Erickson (D-MT)
Date Appointed: March 13, 1933
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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William H. Thompson (D-NE)
Date Appointed: May 24, 1933
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Carl Atwood Hatch (D-NM)
Date Appointed: October 10, 1933
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1934.

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Ernest W. Gibson (R-VT)
Date Appointed: November, 1933
Elected: Yes, on January 16, 1934

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Joseph C. O'Mahoney (D-WY)
Date Appointed: December 18, 1933
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1934.

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Dennis Chavez (D-NM)
Date Appointed: May 11, 1935
Elected: Yes, on November 3, 1936.

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Elmer A. Benson (FL-MN)
Date Appointed: December 27, 1935
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Rose McConnell Long (D-LA)
Date Appointed: January 31, 1936
Elected: Yes, on April 21, 1936.

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Scott M. Loftin (D-FL)
Date Appointed: May 26, 1936
Elected: Did not seek election.

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William L. Hill (D-FL)
Date Appointed: July 1, 1936
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Herbert E. Hitchcock (D-SD)
Date Appointed: December 29, 1936
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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George L. Berry (D-TN)
Date Appointed: May 6, 1937
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Dixie Bibb Graves (D-AL)
Date Appointed: August 20, 1937
Elected: Did not seek election.

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J. Lister Hill (D-AL)
Date Appointed: January 10, 1938
Elected: Yes, on April 26, 1938.

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John G. Milton (D-NJ)
Date Appointed: January 18, 1938
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Alfred E. Reames (D-OR)
Date Appointed: February 1, 1938
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Thomas M. Storke (D-CA)
Date Appointed: November 9, 1938
Elected: Did not seek election.

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James M. Slattery (D-IL)
Date Appointed: April 14, 1939
Elected: No, defeated on November 6, 1940.

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Albert B. Chandler (D-KY)
Date Appointed: October 10, 1939
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1940.

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John Thomas (R-ID)
Date Appointed: January 27, 1940
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1940.

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Ernest W. Gibson, Jr. (R-VT)
Date Appointed: June 24, 1940
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Joseph H. Ball (R-MN)
Date Appointed: October 14, 1940
Elected: Yes, on November 3, 1942.

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Berkeley L. Bunker (D-NV)
Date Appointed: November 27, 1940
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Joseph Rosier (D-WV)
Date Appointed: January 13, 1941
Elected: No, defeated on November 17, 1942.

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G. Lloyd Spencer (D-AR)
Date Appointed: April 1, 1941
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Andrew J. Houston (D-TX)
Date Appointed: April 21, 1941
Elected: Did not seek election.

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James O. Eastland (D-MS)
Date Appointed: June 30, 1941
Elected: Did not seek election at this time, but was elected to the Senate in 1942.

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Alva Moore Lumpkin (D-SC)
Date Appointed: July 17, 1941
Elected: No, died in office on August 1, 1941.

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Roger C. Peace (D-SC)
Date Appointed: August 5, 1941
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Eugene D. Millikin (R-CO)
Date Appointed: December 20, 1941
Elected: Yes, on November 3, 1942.

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Arthur Walsh (D-NJ)
Date Appointed: November 26, 1943
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Samuel D. Jackson (D-IN)
Date Appointed: January 28, 1944
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Sinclair Weeks (R-MA)
Date Appointed: February 8, 1944
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Guy Cordon (R-OR)
Date Appointed: March 4, 1944
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1944.

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Wilton E. Hall (D-SC)
Date Appointed: November 20, 1944
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Hugh B. Mitchell (D-WA)
Date Appointed: January 10, 1945
Elected: No, defeated on November 5, 1946.

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Frank P. Briggs (D-MO)
Date Appointed: January 18, 1945
Elected: No, defeated on November 5, 1946.

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Thomas C. Hart (R-CT)
Date Appointed: February 15, 1945
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Milton R. Young (R-ND)
Date Appointed: March 12, 1945
Elected: Yes, on June 25, 1946.

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Edward P. Carville (D-NV)
Date Appointed: July 25, 1945
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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William F. Knowland (R-CA)
Date Appointed: August 14, 1945
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1946

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James W. Huffman (D-OH)
Date Appointed: October 8, 1945
Elected: No, defeated on November 5, 1946.

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Charles C. Gossett (D-ID)
Date Appointed: November 17, 1945
Elected: No, defeated on November 5, 1946.

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William A. Stanfill (R-KY)
Date Appointed: November 19, 1945
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Thomas G. Burch (D-VA)
Date Appointed: May 31, 1946
Elected: Did not seek election.

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George R. Swift (D-AL)
Date Appointed: June 15, 1946
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Spessard L. Holland (D-FL)
Date Appointed: September 25, 1946
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1946.

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Ralph E. Flanders (R-VT)
Date Appointed: November 1, 1946
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1946.

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William B. Umstead (D-NC)
Date Appointed: December 18, 1946
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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William C. Feazel (D-LA)
Date Appointed: May 18, 1948
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Vera C. Bushfield (R-SD)
Date Appointed: October 6, 1948
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Garrett L. Withers (D-KY)
Date Appointed: January 20, 1949
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Frank P. Graham (D-NC)
Date Appointed: March 29, 1949
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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John Foster Dulles (R-NY)
Date Appointed: July 7, 1949
Elected: No, defeated on November 8, 1949.

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Edward L. Leahy (D-RI)
Date Appointed: August 24, 1949
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Henry C. Dworshak (R-ID)
Date Appointed: October 14, 1949
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 1950.

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Harry Darby (R-KS)
Date Appointed: December 2, 1949
Elected: Did not seek election.

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William Benton (D-CT)
Date Appointed: December 17, 1949
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 1950.

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Thomas R. Underwood (D-KY)
Date Appointed: March 19, 1951
Elected: No, defeated on November 4, 1952.

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Blair Moody (D-MI)
Date Appointed: April 22, 1951
Elected: No, defeated on November 4, 1952.

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Frederick A. Seaton (R-NE)
Date Appointed: December 10, 1951
Elected: Did not seek election.

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William A. Purtell (R-CT)
Date Appointed: August 29, 1952
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Thomas H. Kuchel (R-CA)
Date Appointed: January 2, 1953
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 1954.

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Alton A. Lennon (D-NC)
Date Appointed: July 10, 1953
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Robert W. Upton (R-NH)
Date Appointed: August 14, 1953
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Thomas A. Burke (D-OH)
Date Appointed: October 12, 1953
Elected: No, defeated on November 2, 1954.

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Eva Bowring (R-NE)
Date Appointed: April 16, 1954
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Sam J. Ervin, Jr. (D-NC)
Date Appointed: June 5, 1954
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 1954.

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Edward D. Crippa (R-WY)
Date Appointed: June 24, 1954
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Sam W. Reynolds (R-NE)
Date Appointed: July 3, 1954
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Charles E. Daniel (D-SC)
Date Appointed: September 6, 1954
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Ernest S. Brown (R-NV)
Date Appointed: October 1, 1954
Elected: No, defeated on November 2, 1954.

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William R. Laird, III (D-WV)
Date Appointed: March 13, 1956
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Thomas A. Wofford (D-SC)
Date Appointed: April 5, 1956
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Robert Humphreys (D-KY)
Date Appointed: June 21, 1956
Elected: Did not seek election.

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William A. Blakley (D-TX)
Date Appointed: January 15, 1957
Elected: Did not seek election.

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John D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R-WV)
Date Appointed: January 25, 1958
Elected: No, defeated on November 4, 1958.

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B. Everett Jordan (D-NC)
Date Appointed: April 19, 1958
Elected: Yes, on November 4, 1958.

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C. Norman Brunsdale (R-ND)
Date Appointed: November 19, 1959
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Hall Lusk (D-OR)
Date Appointed: March 16, 1960
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Edward V. Long (D-MO)
Date Appointed: September 23, 1960
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1960.

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Benjamin Smith (D-MA)
Date Appointed: December 27, 1960
Elected: Did not seek election.

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William Blakley (D-TX)
Date Appointed: January 3, 1961
Elected: No, defeated on May 27, 1961.

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J. Joseph Hickey (D-WY)
Date Appointed: January 3, 1961
Elected: No, defeated on November 6, 1962.

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Maurice J. Murphy, Jr. (R-NH)
Date Appointed: December 7, 1961
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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James B. Pearson (R-KS)
Date Appointed: January 31, 1962
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1962

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Joseph H. Bottum (R-SD)
Date Appointed: July 9, 1962
Elected: No, defeated on November 6, 1962.

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Len Jordan (R-ID)
Date Appointed: August 6, 1962
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1962.

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Edwin Mechem (R-NM)
Date Appointed: November 30, 1962
Elected: No, defeated on November 3, 1964.

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J. Howard Edmondson (D-OK)
Date Appointed: January 7, 1963
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Herbert S. Walters (D-TN)
Date Appointed: August 20, 1963
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Pierre Salinger (D-CA)
Date Appointed: August 4, 1964
Elected: No, defeated on November 3, 1964.

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Walter F. Mondale (D-MN)
Date Appointed: December 30, 1964
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1966.

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Donald S. Russell (D-SC)
Date Appointed: April 22, 1965
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (D/I-VA)
Date Appointed: November 12, 1965
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1966.

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Robert P. Griffin (R-MI)
Date Appointed: May 11, 1966
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1966.

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Charles E. Goodell (R-NY)
Date Appointed: September 10, 1968
Elected: No, defeated on November 3, 1970.

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Theodore (Ted) Stevens (R-AK)
Date Appointed: December 24, 1968
Elected: Yes, on November 3, 1970.

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Ralph Tyler Smith (R-IL)
Date Appointed: September 17, 1969
Elected: No, defeated on November 3, 1970.

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David H. Gambrell (D-GA)
Date Appointed: February 1, 1971
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Robert T. Stafford (R-VT)
Date Appointed: September 16, 1971
Elected: Yes, on January 7, 1972.

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Elaine S. Edwards (D-LA)
Date Appointed: August 1, 1972
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Howard M. Metzenbaum (D-OH)
Date Appointed: January 4, 1974
Elected: No, defeated for nomination, but was successfully elected to the Senate in 1976.

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Norris H. Cotton (R-NH)
Date Appointed: August 8, 1975
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Wendell R. Anderson (D-MN)
Date Appointed: December 30, 1976
Elected: No, defeated on November 7, 1978.

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Kaneaster Hodges, Jr. (D-AR)
Date Appointed: December 10, 1977
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Paul G. Hatfield (D-MT)
Date Appointed: January 22, 1978
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Muriel B. Humphrey (D-MN)
Date Appointed: January 25, 1978
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Maryon P. Allen (D-AL)
Date Appointed: June 8, 1978
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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George J. Mitchell (D-ME)
Date Appointed: May 17, 1980
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 1982.

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Nicholas F. Brady (R-NJ)
Date Appointed: April 12, 1982
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Daniel J. Evans(R-WA)
Date Appointed: September 8, 1983
Elected: Yes, on November 8, 1983

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James T. Broyhill (R-NC)
Date Appointed: July 3, 1986
Elected: No, defeated on November 5, 1986.

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David K. Karnes (R-NE)
Date Appointed: March 11, 1987
Elected: No, defeated on November 8, 1988.

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Dan Coats (R-IN)
Date Appointed: January 3, 1989
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1990

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Daniel K. Akaka (D-HI)
Date Appointed: May 16, 1990
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 1990

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John Seymour (R-CA)
Date Appointed: January 7, 1991
Elected: No, defeated on November 3, 1992.

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Harris Wofford (D-PA)
Date Appointed: May 8, 1991
Elected: Yes, on November 5, 1991.

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Jocelyn Burdick (D-ND)
Date Appointed: September 12, 1992
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Harlan Mathews (D-TN)
Date Appointed: January 2, 1993
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Robert C. Krueger (D-TX)
Date Appointed: January 21, 1993
Elected: No, defeated on June 5, 1993.

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Sheila Frahm (R-KS)
Date Appointed: June 11, 1996
Elected: No, defeated for nomination.

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Lincoln Chafee (R-RI)
Date Appointed: November 2, 1999
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 2000.

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Zell Miller (D-GA)
Date Appointed: July 24, 2000
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 2000.

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Jean Carnahan (D-MO)
Date Appointed: Effective January 3, 2001
Elected:  No, defeated on November 5, 2002

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Dean Barkley (I-MN)
Date Appointed:  November 4, 2002
Elected:  Did not seek election.

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Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)
Date Appointed:  December 20, 2002
Elected:  Yes, on November 2, 2004

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Robert Menendez (D-NJ)
Date Appointed:  January 17, 2006
Elected: Yes, on November 7, 2006

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John A. Barrasso (R-WY)
Date Appointed:  June 22, 2007
Elected: Yes, on November 4, 2008

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Roger F. Wicker (R-MS)
Date Appointed:  December 31, 2007
Elected: Yes, on November 4, 2008

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Roland W. Burris (D-IL)
Date Appointed:  December 31, 2008
Note: Appointed December 31, 2008, but credentials were not in order until January 12, 2009. Took oath of office on January 15, 2009.
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Edward E. Kaufman (D-DE)
Date Appointed:  January 15, 2009
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Michael F. Bennet (D-CO)
Date Appointed:  January 21, 2009
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 2010

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Kirsten E. Gillibrand (D-NY)
Date Appointed: January 26, 2009
Note: Appointed January 23, 2009, and appointment took effect upon her resignation from the House of Representatives on January 26, 2009. Took the oath of office on January 27, 2009.
Elected: Yes, on November 2, 2010

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George S. LeMieux (R-FL)
Date Appointed: September 9, 2009, and began service on September 10, 2009.
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Paul G. Kirk, Jr. (D-MA)
Date Appointed: September 24, 2009
Note: Took the oath of office on September 25, 2009.
Elected: Did not seek election.

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Carte P. Goodwin (D-WV)
Date Appointed: July 16, 2010
Note: Took the oath of office on July 20, 2010.
Elected: Did not seek election

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Dean Heller (R-NV)
Date Appointed: May 3, 2011
Note: Took the oath of office on May 9, 2011.
Elected: Yes, on November 6, 2012.

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Brian Schatz (D-HI)
Date Appointed: December 26, 2012
Note: Took the oath of office on December 27, 2012.

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Tim Scott (R-SC)
Date Appointed: January 2, 2013
Note: Took the oath of office on January 3, 2013.

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William "Mo" Cowan (D-MA)
Date Appointed: February 1, 2013
Note: Took the oath of office on February 7, 2013.

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Jeffrey S. Chiesa (R-NJ)
Date Appointed: June 6, 2013
Note: Took the oath of office on June 10, 2013

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John E. Walsh (D-MT)
Date Appointed: February 9, 2014
Note: Took the oath of office on February 11, 2014

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