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Appointed Senators


Photo of Sam Ervin

The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution (1913) established direct election of senators, as well as a means of filling vacant Senate seats. If a vacancy occurs due to a senator's death, resignation, or expulsion, the Seventeenth Amendment allows state legislatures to empower the governor to appoint a replacement to complete the term or to hold office until a special election can take place. There are a few exceptions to this rule. Some states require a special election to fill a vacancy. A few states require the governor to appoint a replacement of the same political party as the previous incumbent. The date when a senator appointed to fill a vacancy is succeeded by a senator elected to fill the remainder of the term depends on a number of factors. For more information on how vacancies are filled, see this Report (pdf) from the Congressional Research Service and the Senate Document The Term of Senator: When Does It Begin and End? (pdf).

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Appointed Senators since 1913

The names of current senators appear in bold print.

Name and party Date appointed Elected
Johnston, Rienzi M. (D-TX) Jan 4, 1913 Did not seek election.
Heiskell, John N. (D-AR) Jan 6, 1913 Did not seek election.
West, William S. (D-GA) Mar 2, 1914 Did not seek election.
Camden, Johnson, Jr. (D-KY) Jun 16, 1914 Yes, on Nov 3, 1914.
Taggart, Thomas (D-IN) Mar 20, 1916 No, was defeated on Nov 7, 1916.
McNary, Charles L. (R-OR) May 29, 1917 Yes, to full term beginning Mar 4, 1918. Was not a candidate in the special election on the same date to fill remainder of term ending Mar 3, 1918, but was subsequently appointed to fill remainder of the term ending Mar 3, 1918.
Henderson, Charles B. (D-NV) Jan 12, 1918 Yes, on Nov 5, 1918.
Nugent, John F. (D-ID) Jan 22, 1918 Yes, on Nov 5, 1918.
Baird, David (R-NJ) Feb 23, 1918 Yes, on Nov 5, 1918.
Guion, Walter (D-LA) Apr 22, 1918 Did not seek election.
Wilfley, Xenophon P. (D-MO) Apr 30, 1918 No, did not win nomination.
Benet, Christie (D-SC) Jul 6, 1918 No, did not win nomination.
Drew, Irving W. (R-NH) Sep 2, 1918 Did not seek election.
Martin, George B. (D-KY) Sep 7, 1918 Did not seek election.
Glass, Carter (D-VA) Nov 18, 1919 Yes, on Nov 3, 1920.
Comer, Braxton B. (D-AL) Mar 5, 1920 Did not seek election.
Bursum, Holm O. (R-NM) Mar 11, 1921 Yes, on Sep 20, 1921.
du Pont, Thomas Coleman (R-DE) Jul 7, 1921 No, defeated on Nov 7, 1922, but was successfully elected in 1924.
Crow, William E. (R-PA) Oct 17, 1921 Died on Aug 2, 1922.
Pepper, George W. (R-PA) Jan 9, 1922 Yes, on Nov 7, 1922.
Rawson, Charles A. (R-IA) Feb 24, 1922 Did not seek election.
Reed, David A. (R-PA) Aug 8, 1922 Yes, on Nov 7, 1922.
Felton, Rebecca L. (D-GA) Oct 3, 1922 Did not seek election.
Couzens, James (R-MI) Nov 29, 1922 Yes, on Nov 4, 1924.
Adams, Alva B. (D-CO) May 17, 1923 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1924, but was successfully elected in 1932.
Butler, William M. (R-MA) Nov 13, 1924 No, defeated on Nov 2, 1926.
Williams, George H. (R-MO) May 25, 1925 No, defeated on Nov 2, 1926.
Robinson, Arthur R. (R-IN) Oct 20, 1925 Yes, on Nov 2, 1926.
Nye, Gerald P. (R-ND) Nov 14, 1925 Yes, on Jun 30, 1926.
Stewart, David W. (R-IA) Aug 7, 1926 Yes, on Nov 2, 1926.
Cutting, Bronson (R-NM) Dec 29, 1927 Yes, on Nov 6, 1928, to full term beginning Mar 4, 1929; was not a candidate for special election on the same date to fill remainder of the term ending Mar 3, 1929.
Vandenberg, Arthur H. (R-MI) Mar 31, 1928 Yes, on Nov 6, 1928.
Locher, Cyrus (D-OH) Apr 4, 1928 No, defeated for nomination.
Thomas, John (R-ID) Jun 30, 1928 Yes, on Nov 6, 1928.
Hastings, Daniel O. (R-DE) Dec 10, 1928 Yes, on Nov 4, 1930.
Allen, Henry J. (R-KS) Apr 1, 1929 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1930.
Brock, William E. (D-TN) Sep 2, 1929 Yes, on Nov 4, 1930.
McCulloch, Roscoe C. (R-OH) Nov 5, 1929 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1930.
Baird, David, Jr. (R-NJ) Nov 30, 1929 Did not seek election.
Sullivan, Patrick J. (R-WY) Dec 5, 1929 Did not seek election.
Grundy, Joseph R. (R-PA) Dec 11, 1929 No, defeated for nomination.
Robsion, John M. (R-KY) Jan 9, 1930 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1930.
Morrison, Cameron (D-NC) Dec 13, 1930 No, defeated for nomination.
Partridge, Frank C. (R-VT) Dec 23, 1930 No, defeated for nomination.
Caraway, Hattie W. (D-AR) Nov 13, 1931 Yes, on Jan 12, 1932.
Barbour, W. Warren (R-NJ) Dec 1, 1931 Yes, on Nov 8, 1932.
Cohen, John S. (D-GA) Apr 25, 1932 Did not seek election.
Walker, Walter (D-CO) Sep 26, 1932 No, defeated on Nov 8, 1932.
Grammer, Elijah S. (R-WA) Nov 22, 1932 Did not seek election.
Bachman, Nathan L. (D-TN) Feb 28, 1933 Yes, on Nov 6, 1934.
Byrd, Harry F. (D-VA) Mar 4, 1933 Yes, on Nov 7, 1933.
Erickson, John E. (D-MT) Mar 13, 1933 No, defeated for nomination.
  Thompson, William H. (D-NE) May 24, 1933 Did not seek election.
Hatch, Carl Atwood (D-NM) Oct 10, 1933 Yes, on Nov 6, 1934.
Gibson, Ernest W. (R-VT) Nov 21, 1933 Yes, on Jan 16, 1934.
O'Mahoney, Joseph C. (D-WY) Dec 18, 1933 Yes, on Nov 6, 1934.
Chavez, Dennis (D-NM) May 11, 1935 Yes, on Nov 3, 1936.
Benson, Elmer A. (FL-MN) Dec 27, 1935 Did not seek election.
Long, Rose McConnell (D-LA) Jan 31, 1936 Yes, on Apr 21, 1936.
Loftin, Scott M. (D-FL) May 26, 1936 Did not seek election.
Hill, William L. (D-FL) Jul 1, 1936 Did not seek election.
Hitchcock, Herbert E. (D-SD) Dec 29, 1936 No, defeated for nomination.
Berry, George L. (D-TN) May 6, 1937 No, defeated for nomination.
Graves, Dixie Bibb (D-AL) Aug 20, 1937 Did not seek election.
Hill, J. Lister (D-AL) Jan 10, 1938 Yes, on Apr 26, 1938.
Milton, John G. (D-NJ) Jan 18, 1938 Did not seek election.
Reames, Alfred E. (D-OR) Feb 1, 1938 Did not seek election.
Storke, Thomas M. (D-CA) Nov 9, 1938 Did not seek election.
Slattery, James M. (D-IL) Apr 14, 1939 No, defeated on Nov 6, 1940.
Chandler, Albert B. (D-KY) Oct 10, 1939 Yes, on Nov 6, 1940.
Thomas, John (R-ID) Jan 27, 1940 Yes, on Nov 6, 1940.
Gibson, Ernest W., Jr. (R-VT) Jun 24, 1940 Did not seek election.
Ball, Joseph H. (R-MN) Oct 14, 1940 Yes, on Nov 3, 1942.
Bunker, Berkeley L. (D-NV) Nov 27, 1940 No, defeated for nomination.
Rosier, Joseph (D-WV) Jan 13, 1941 No, defeated on Nov 17, 1942.
Spencer, G. Lloyd (D-AR) Apr 1, 1941 Did not seek election.
Houston, Andrew J. (D-TX) Apr 21, 1941 Died on June 26, 1941
Eastland, James O. (D-MS) Jun 30, 1941 Did not seek election at this time, but was elected to the Senate in 1942.
Lumpkin, Alva Moore (D-SC) Jul 17, 1941 No, died in office on Aug 1, 1941.
Peace, Roger C. (D-SC) Aug 5, 1941 Did not seek election.
Millikin, Eugene D. (R-CO) Dec 20, 1941 Yes, on Nov 3, 1942.
Walsh, Arthur (D-NJ) Nov 26, 1943 Did not seek election.
Jackson, Samuel D. (D-IN) Jan 28, 1944 Did not seek election.
Weeks, Sinclair (R-MA) Feb 8, 1944 Did not seek election.
Cordon, Guy (R-OR) Mar 4, 1944 Yes, on Nov 8, 1944.
Hall, Wilton E. (D-SC) Nov 20, 1944 Did not seek election.
Mitchell, Hugh B. (D-WA) Jan 10, 1945 No, defeated on Nov 5, 1946.
Briggs, Frank P. (D-MO) Jan 18, 1945 No, defeated on Nov 5, 1946.
Hart, Thomas C. (R-CT) Feb 15, 1945 Did not seek election.
Young, Milton R. (R-ND) Mar 12, 1945 Yes, on Jun 25, 1946.
Carville, Edward P. (D-NV) Jul 25, 1945 No, defeated for nomination.
Knowland, William F. (R-CA) Aug 14, 1945 Yes, on Nov 5, 1946.
Huffman, James W. (D-OH) Oct 8, 1945 No, defeated on Nov 5, 1946.
Gossett, Charles C. (D-ID) Nov 17, 1945 No, defeated for nomination.
Stanfill, William A. (R-KY) Nov 19, 1945 Did not seek election.
Burch, Thomas G. (D-VA) May 31, 1946 Did not seek election.
Swift, George R. (D-AL) Jun 15, 1946 Did not seek election.
Holland, Spessard L. (D-FL) Sep 25, 1946 Yes, on Nov 5, 1946.
Flanders, Ralph E. (R-VT) Nov 1, 1946 Yes, on Nov 5, 1946.
Umstead, William B. (D-NC) Dec 18, 1946 No, defeated for nomination.
Feazel, William C. (D-LA) May 18, 1948 Did not seek election.
Bushfield, Vera C. (R-SD) Oct 6, 1948 Did not seek election.
Withers, Garrett L. (D-KY) Jan 20, 1949 Did not seek election.
Graham, Frank P. (D-NC) Mar 29, 1949 No, defeated for nomination.
Dulles, John Foster (R-NY) Jul 7, 1949 No, defeated on Nov 8, 1949.
Leahy, Edward L. (D-RI) Aug 24, 1949 Did not seek election.
Dworshak, Henry C. (R-ID) Oct 14, 1949 Yes, on Nov 7, 1950.
Darby, Harry (R-KS) Dec 2, 1949 Did not seek election.
Benton, William (D-CT) Dec 17, 1949 Yes, on Nov 7, 1950.
Underwood, Thomas R. (D-KY) Mar 19, 1951 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1952.
Moody, Blair (D-MI) Apr 23, 1951 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1952.
Seaton, Frederick A. (R-NE) Dec 10, 1951 Did not seek election.
Purtell, William A. (R-CT) Aug 29, 1952 Was not a candidate in special election to fill remainer of the term to which he was appointed, but was elected to Class 1 seat in 1952.
Kuchel, Thomas H. (R-CA) Jan 2, 1953 Yes, on Nov 2, 1954.
Lennon, Alton A. (D-NC) Jul 10, 1953 No, defeated for nomination.
Upton, Robert W. (R-NH) Aug 14, 1953 No, defeated for nomination.
Burke, Thomas A. (D-OH) Oct 13, 1953 No, defeated on Nov 2, 1954.
Bowring, Eva (R-NE) Apr 16, 1954 Did not seek election.
Ervin, Sam J., Jr. (D-NC) Jun 5, 1954 Yes, on Nov 2, 1954.
Crippa, Edward D. (R-WY) Jun 24, 1954 Did not seek election.
Reynolds, Sam W. (R-NE) Jul 3, 1954 Did not seek election.
Daniel, Charles E. (D-SC) Sep 6, 1954 Did not seek election.
Brown, Ernest S. (R-NV) Oct 1, 1954 No, defeated on Nov 2, 1954.
Laird, William R., III (D-WV) Mar 13, 1956 Did not seek election.
Wofford, Thomas A. (D-SC) Apr 5, 1956 Did not seek election.
Humphreys, Robert (D-KY) Jun 21, 1956 Did not seek election.
Blakley, William A. (D-TX) Jan 15, 1957 Did not seek election.
Hoblitzell, John, Jr. (R-WV) Jan 25, 1958 No, defeated on Nov 4, 1958.
Jordan, B. Everett (D-NC) Apr 19, 1958 Yes, on Nov 4, 1958.
Brunsdale, C. Norman (R-ND) Nov 19, 1959 Did not seek election.
Lusk, Hall (D-OR) Mar 16, 1960 Did not seek election.
Long, Edward V. (D-MO) Sep 23, 1960 Yes, on Nov 8, 1960.
Smith, Benjamin (D-MA) Dec 27, 1960 Did not seek election.
Blakley, William (D-TX) Jan 3, 1961 No, defeated on May 27, 1961.
Hickey, J. Joseph (D-WY) Jan 3, 1961 No, defeated on Nov 6, 1962.
Murphy, Maurice J., Jr. (R-NH) Dec 7, 1961 No, defeated for nomination.
Pearson, James B. (R-KS) Jan 31, 1962 Yes, on Nov 6, 1962
Bottum, Joseph H. (R-SD) Jul 9, 1962 No, defeated on Nov 6, 1962.
Jordan, Len (R-ID) Aug 6, 1962 Yes, on Nov 6, 1962.
Mechem, Edwin (R-NM) Nov 30, 1962 No, defeated on Nov 3, 1964.
Edmondson, J. Howard (D-OK) Jan 7, 1963 No, defeated for nomination.
Walters, Herbert S. (D-TN) Aug 20, 1963 Did not seek election.
Salinger, Pierre (D-CA) Aug 4, 1964 No, defeated on Nov 3, 1964.
Mondale,Walter F. (D-MN) Dec 30, 1964 Yes, on Nov 8, 1966.
Russell, Donald S. (D-SC) Apr 22, 1965 No, defeated for nomination.
Byrd, Harry F., Jr. (D/I-VA) Nov 12, 1965 Yes, on Nov 8, 1966.
Griffin, Robert P. (R-MI) May 11, 1966 Yes, on Nov 8, 1966.
Goodell, Charles E. (R-NY) Sep 10, 1968 No, defeated on Nov 3, 1970.
Stevens, Theodore (Ted) (R-AK) Dec 24, 1968 Yes, on Nov 3, 1970.
Smith, Ralph Tyler (R-IL) Sep 17, 1969 No, defeated on Nov 3, 1970.
Gambrell, David H. (D-GA) Feb 1, 1971 No, defeated for nomination.
Stafford, Robert T. (R-VT) Sep 16, 1971 Yes, on Jan 7, 1972.
Edwards, Elaine S. (D-LA) Aug 1, 1972 Did not seek election.
Metzenbaum, Howard M. (D-OH) Jan 4, 1974 No, defeated for nomination, but was successfully elected to the Senate in 1976.
Wyman, Louis C. (R-NH) Dec 31, 1974 No, defeated on Sep 16, 19751
Cotton, Norris H. (R-NH) Aug 8, 1975 Did not seek election.
Anderson, Wendell R. (D-MN) Dec 30, 1976 No, defeated on Nov 7, 1978.
Hodges, Kaneaster, Jr. (D-AR) Dec 10, 1977 Did not seek election.
Hatfield, Paul G. (D-MT) Jan 22, 1978 No, defeated for nomination.
Humphrey, Muriel B. (D-MN) Jan 25, 1978 Did not seek election.
Allen, Maryon P. (D-AL) Jun 8, 1978 No, defeated for nomination.
Mitchell, George J. (D-ME) May 17, 1980 Yes, on Nov 2, 1982.
Brady, Nicholas F. (R-NJ) Apr 12, 1982 Did not seek election.
Evans, Daniel J.(R-WA) Sep 8, 1983 Yes, on Nov 8, 1983
Broyhill, James T. (R-NC) Jul 14, 1986 No, defeated on Nov 5, 1986.
Karnes, David K. (R-NE) Mar 11, 1987 No, defeated on Nov 8, 1988.
Coats, Dan (R-IN) Dec 27, 1988 Yes, on Nov 6, 1990
Akaka, Daniel K. (D-HI) May 16, 1990 Yes, on Nov 6, 1990
Seymour, John (R-CA) Jan 7, 1991 No, defeated on Nov 3, 1992.
Wofford, Harris (D-PA) May 8, 1991 Yes, on Nov 5, 1991.
Burdick, Jocelyn (D-ND) Sep 12, 1992 Did not seek election.
Mathews, Harlan (D-TN) Dec 29, 1992 Did not seek election.
Krueger, Robert C. (D-TX) Jan 21, 1993 No, defeated on Jun 5, 1993.
Frahm, Sheila (R-KS) Jun 11, 1996 No, defeated for nomination.
Chafee, Lincoln (R-RI) Nov 2, 1999 Yes, on Nov 7, 2000.
Miller, Zell (D-GA) Jul 24, 2000 Yes, on Nov 7, 2000.
Carnahan, Jean (D-MO) Effective Jan 3, 2001 No, defeated on Nov 5, 2002.
Barkley, Dean (I-MN) Nov 4, 2002  Did not seek election.
Murkowski, Lisa (R-AK) Dec 20, 2002  Yes, on Nov 2, 2004.
Menendez, Robert (D-NJ) Jan 17, 2006 Yes, on Nov 7, 2006.
Barrasso, John A. (R-WY) Jun 22, 2007 Yes, on Nov 4, 2008.
Wicker, Roger F. (R-MS) Dec 31, 2007 Yes, on Nov 4, 2008.
Burris, Roland W. (D-IL)2 Dec 31, 2008 Did not seek election.
Kaufman, Edward E. (D-DE) Jan 15, 2009 Did not seek election.
Bennet, Michael F. (D-CO) Jan 21, 2009 Yes, on Nov 2, 2010.
Gillibrand, Kirsten E. (D-NY)3 Jan 26, 2009 Yes, on Nov 2, 2010.
LeMieux, George S. (R-FL) Sep 9, 2009 Did not seek election.
Kirk, Paul G., Jr. (D-MA) Sep 24, 2009 Did not seek election.
Goodwin, Carte P. (D-WV) Jul 16, 2010 Did not seek election.
Heller, Dean
(R-NV) 4
May 3, 2011 Yes, on Nov 6, 2012.
Schatz, Brian (D-HI) Dec 26, 2012 Yes, on Nov 4, 2014.
Scott, Tim (R-SC) Jan 2, 2013 Yes, on Nov 4, 2014.
Cowan, William "Mo" (D-MA) Feb 1, 2013 Did not seek election.
Chiesa, Jeffrey S. (R-NJ) Jun 6, 2013 Did not seek election.
Walsh, John E. (D-MT) Feb 9, 2014 Did not seek election.
Strange, Luther J., III (R-AL) Feb 9, 2017 Not a candidate in the general election, having been defeated in a primary runoff election on September 26, 2017.
Smith, Tina (D-MN) Jan 3, 2018
Hyde-Smith, Cindy (R-MS) April 2, 2018

1. Wyman had run against John Durkin in the November 1974 general election for seat being vacated by Norris Cotton, but the election results were contested. In the meantime, Norris Cotton resigned his seat on Dec. 31, 1974, and the governor appointed Wyman to serve the last 3 days of Cotton's term. The seat was then vacant from Jan. 3, 1975, until Aug. 8, 1975, when Cotton was appointed to fill the vacancy pending the results of a special election to be held in September between Wyman and Durkin. Durkin handily won the special election.

2. Appointed December 31, 2008, but credentials were not in order until January 15, 2009.

3. Appointed January 23, 2009, and appointment took effect upon her resignation from the House of Representatives on January 26, 2009. Took the oath of office on January 27, 2009.

4. Appointed May 3, 2011, but did not resign his House seat until May 9, 2011.