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Supreme Court Nominations (Present-1789)


The Constitution requires the president to submit nominations to the Senate for its advice and consent. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, presidents have submitted 163 nominations for the Court, including those for chief justice. Of this total, 126 were confirmed (7 declined to serve). This chart lists nominations officially submitted to the Senate.
 

Nominee

To Replace

Nominated

Vote

Result & Date

President Trump, Donald
Kavanaugh, BrettKennedyJul 10, 201850-48  No.  223COct 6, 2018
Gorsuch, Neil M.ScaliaFeb 1, 201754-45  No.  111CApr 7, 2017
President Obama, Barack
Garland, Merrick B. ScaliaMar 16, 2016N
Kagan, ElenaStevensMay 10, 201063-37  No.  229CAug 5, 2010
Sotomayor, SoniaSouterJun 1, 200968-31  No.  262CAug 6, 2009
President Bush, George W.
Alito, Samuel A., Jr.O'ConnorNov 10, 200558-42  No.  2CJan 31, 2006
Miers, HarrietO'ConnorOct 7, 2005WOct 28, 2005
Roberts, John G., Jr.1RehnquistSep 6, 200578-22  No.  245CSep 29, 2005
Roberts, John G., Jr.O'ConnorJul 29, 2005WSep 6, 2005
President Clinton, Bill
Breyer, Stephen G. BlackmunMay 17, 199487-9  No.  242CJul 29, 1994
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader WhiteJun 22, 199396-3  No.  232CAug 3, 1993
President Bush, George H.W.
Thomas, Clarence MarshallJul 8, 199152-48  No.  220COct 15, 1991
Souter, David H. BrennanJul 25, 199090-9  No.  259COct 2, 1990
President Reagan, Ronald
Kennedy, Anthony M. PowellNov 30, 198797-0  No.  16CFeb 3, 1988
Bork, Robert H. PowellJul 7, 198742-58  No.  348ROct 23, 1987
Scalia, Antonin RehnquistJun 24, 198698-0  No.  267CSep 17, 1986
Rehnquist, William H. 2BurgerJun 20, 198665-33  No.  266CSep 17, 1986
O'Connor, Sandra DayStewartAug 19, 198199-0  No.  274CSep 21, 1981
President Ford, Gerald
Stevens, John Paul DouglasNov 28, 197598-0  No.  603CDec 17, 1975
President Nixon, Richard
Rehnquist, William H. HarlanOct 22, 197168-26  No.  450CDec 10, 1971
Powell, Lewis F., Jr.BlackOct 22, 197189-1  No.  439CDec 6, 1971
Blackmun, Harry FortasApr 15, 197094-0  No.  143CMay 12, 1970
Carswell, G. Harrold FortasJan 19, 197045-51  No.  122RApr 8, 1970
Haynsworth, Clement, Jr.FortasAug 21, 196945-55  No.  154RNov 21, 1969
Burger, Warren 3WarrenMay 23, 196974-3  No.  35CJun 9, 1969
President Johnson, Lyndon
Thornberry, Homer FortasJun 26, 1968WOct 4, 1968
Fortas, Abe 4WarrenJun 26, 1968WOct 4, 1968
Marshall, Thurgood ClarkJun 13, 196769-11  No.  240CAug 30, 1967
Fortas, Abe GoldbergJul 28, 1965VCAug 11, 1965
President Kennedy, John
Goldberg, Arthur FrankfurterAug 31, 1962VCSep 25, 1962
White, Byron WhittakerApr 3, 1962VCApr 11, 1962
President Eisenhower, Dwight
Stewart, Potter BurtonJan 17, 195970-17CMay 5, 1959
Whittaker, Charles ReedMar 2, 1957VCMar 19, 1957
Brennan, William, Jr.MintonJan 14, 1957VCMar 19, 1957
Harlan, John JacksonJan 10, 195571-11CMar 16, 1955
Harlan, John JacksonNov 9, 1954N
Warren, Earl 5VinsonJan 11, 1954VCMar 1, 1954
President Truman, Harry
Minton, ShermanRutledgeSep 15, 194948-16COct 4, 1949
Clark, Tom MurphyAug 2, 194973-8CAug 18, 1949
Vinson, Fred 6StoneJun 6, 1946VCJun 20, 1946
Burton, HaroldRobertsSep 18, 1945VCSep 19, 1945
President Roosevelt, Franklin
Rutledge, Wiley ByrnesJan 11, 1943VCFeb 8, 1943
Jackson, Robert StoneJun 12, 1941VCJul 7, 1941
Byrnes, James McReynoldsJun 12, 1941VCJun 12, 1941
Stone, Harlan 7HughesJun 12, 1941VCJun 27, 1941
Murphy, Frank ButlerJan 4, 1940VCJan 16, 1940
Douglas, William BrandeisMar 20, 193962-4CApr 4, 1939
Frankfurter, Felix CardozoJan 5, 1939VCJan 17, 1939
Reed, Stanley SutherlandJan 15, 1938VCJan 25, 1938
Black, Hugo Van DevanterAug 12, 193763-16CAug 17, 1937
President Hoover, Herbert
Cardozo, Benjamin HolmesFeb 15, 1932VCFeb 24, 1932
Roberts, Owen SanfordMay 9, 1930VCMay 20, 1930
Parker, John SanfordMar 21, 193039-41RMay 7, 1930
Hughes, Charles 8TaftFeb 3, 193052-26CFeb 13, 1930
President Coolidge, Calvin
Stone, Harlan McKennaJan 5, 192571-6CFeb 5, 1925
President Harding, Warren
Sanford, Edward PitneyJan 24, 1923VCJan 29, 1923
Butler, Pierce DayDec 5, 192261-8CDec 21, 1922
Butler, Pierce DayNov 21, 1922N
Sutherland, George ClarkeSep 5, 1922VCSep 5, 1922
Taft, William 9WhiteJun 30, 192160-4CJun 30, 1921
President Wilson, Woodrow
Clarke, John HughesJul 14, 1916VCJul 24, 1916
Brandeis, Louis LamarJan 28, 191647-22CJun 1, 1916
McReynolds, James LurtonAug 19, 191444-6CAug 29, 1914
President Taft, William
Pitney, Mahlon HarlanFeb 19, 191250-26CMar 13, 1912
Lamar, Joseph MoodyDec 12, 1910VCDec 15, 1910
Devanter, Willis Van WhiteDec 12, 1910VCDec 15, 1910
White, Edward10FullerDec 12, 1910VCDec 12, 1910
Hughes, Charles BrewerApr 25, 1910VCMay 2, 1910
Lurton, Horace PeckhamDec 13, 1909VCDec 20, 1909
President Roosevelt, Theodore
Moody, William BrownDec 3, 1906VCDec 12, 1906
Day, William ShirasFeb 19, 1903VCFeb 23, 1903
Holmes, Oliver GrayDec 2, 1902VCDec 4, 1902
President McKinley, William
McKenna, Joseph FieldDec 16, 1897VCJan 21, 1898
President Cleveland, Grover
Peckham, Rufus JacksonDec 3, 1895VCDec 9, 1895
White, Edward BlatchfordFeb 19, 1894VCFeb 19, 1894
Peckham, Wheeler BlatchfordJan 22, 189432-41RFeb 16, 1894
Hornblower, William BlatchfordDec 5, 189324-30RJan 15, 1894
Hornblower, William BlatchfordSep 19, 1893N
President Benjamin Harrison
Jackson, Howell LamarFeb 2, 1893VCFeb 18, 1893
Shiras, George, Jr.BradleyJul 19, 1892VCJul 26, 1892
Brown, Henry MillerDec 23, 1890VCDec 29, 1890
Brewer, David MatthewsDec 4, 188953-11CDec 18, 1889
President Cleveland, Grover
Fuller, Melville 11WaiteApr 30, 188841-20CJul 20, 1888
Lamar, Lucius WoodsDec 6, 188732-28CJan 16, 1888
President Arthur, Chester
Blatchford, Samuel HuntMar 13, 1882VCMar 22, 1882
Conkling, Roscoe HuntFeb 24, 188239-12DMar 2, 1882
Gray, Horace CliffordDec 19, 188151-5CDec 20, 1881
President Garfield, James
Stanley MatthewsSwayneMar 14, 188124-23CMay 12, 1881
President Hayes, Rutherford
Matthews, Stanley SwayneJan 26, 1881N
Woods, William StrongDec 15, 188039-8CDec 21, 1880
Harlan, John DavisOct 16, 1877VCNov 29, 1877
President Grant, Ulysses
Waite, Morrison12ChaseJan 19, 187463-0CJan 21, 1874
Cushing, Caleb13ChaseJan 9, 1874WJan 13, 1874
Williams, George 14ChaseDec 1, 1873WJan 8, 1874
Hunt, WardNelsonDec 3, 1872VCDec 11, 1872
Bradley, Joseph (new seat)Feb 7, 187046-9CMar 21, 1870
Strong, William GrierFeb 7, 1870CFeb 18, 1870
Stanton, Edwin15GrierDec 20, 186946-11CDec 20, 1869
Hoar, Ebenezer(new seat)Dec 14, 186924-33RFeb 3, 1870
President Johnson, Andrew
Stanbery, HenryCatronApr 16, 1866N
President Lincoln, Abraham
Chase, Salmon 16TaneyDec 6, 1864VCDec 6, 1864
Field, Stephen (new seat)Mar 6, 1863VCMar 10, 1863
Davis, David CampbellDec 1, 1862VCDec 8, 1862
Miller, Samuel DanielJul 16, 1862VCJul 16, 1862
Swayne, Noah McLeanJan 21, 186238-1CJan 24, 1862
President Buchanan, James
Black, Jeremiah DanielFeb 5, 186125-26RFeb 21, 1861
Clifford, Nathan CurtisDec 9, 185726-23CJan 12, 1858
President Pierce, Franklin
Campbell, John McKinleyMar 21, 1853VCMar 22, 1853
President Fillmore, Millard
Micou, William McKinleyFeb 14, 1853N
Badger, Geoge McKinleyJan 3, 1853WFeb 14, 1853
Bradford, Edward McKinleyAug 16, 1852N
Curtis, Benjamin WoodburyDec 11, 1851VCDec 20, 1851
President Polk, James
Grier, Robert BaldwinAug 3, 1846VCAug 4, 1846
Woodbury, Levi StoryDec 23, 1845VCJan 3, 1846
Woodward, George BaldwinDec 23, 184520-29RJan 22, 1846
President Tyler, John
Read, John BaldwinFeb 7, 1845N
Nelson, SamuelThompsonFeb 4, 1845VCFeb 14, 1845
Walworth, Reuben ThompsonDec 4, 1844WFeb 4, 1845
King, Edward BaldwinDec 4, 1844WFeb 7, 1845
Walworth, Reuben 17ThompsonJun 17, 1844NJun 17, 1844
Spencer, JohnThompsonJun 17, 1844WJun 17, 1844
King, Edward BaldwinJun 5, 184429-18PJun 15, 1844
Walworth, ReubenThompsonMar 13, 184427-20WJun 17, 1844
Spencer, John ThompsonJan 8, 184421-26RJan 31, 1844
President Van Buren, Martin
Daniel, Peter BarbourFeb 26, 184125-5CMar 2, 1841
McKinley, John (new seat)Sep 18, 1837VCSep 25, 1837
President Jackson, Andrew
Catron, John (new seat)Mar 3, 183728-15CMar 8, 1837
Smith, William (new seat)Mar 3, 183723-18DMar 8, 1837
Barbour, Philip DuvallDec 28, 183530-11CMar 15, 1836
Taney, Roger18MarshallDec 28, 183529-15CMar 15, 1836
Taney, Roger DuvallJan 15, 183524-21PMar 3, 1835
Wayne, James JohnsonJan 6, 1835VCJan 9, 1835
Baldwin, Henry WashingtonJan 4, 183041-2CJan 6, 1830
McLean, John TrimbleMar 6, 1829VCMar 7, 1829
President Adams, John Quincy
Crittenden, John TrimbleDec 17, 182823-17PFeb 12, 1829
Trimble, RobertToddApr 11, 182627-5CMay 9, 1826
President Monroe, James
Thompson, Smith LivingstonDec 5, 1823VCDec 9, 1823
President Madison, James
Duvall, Gabriel ChaseNov 15, 1811VCNov 18, 1811
Story, Joseph CushingNov 15, 1811VCNov 18, 1811
Adams, John Quincy CushingFeb 21, 1811DFeb 22, 1811
Wolcott, Alexander CushingFeb 4, 18119-24RFeb 13, 1811
Lincoln, Levi CushingJan 2, 1811DJan 3, 1811
President Jefferson, Thomas
Todd, Thomas (new seat)Feb 28, 1807VCMar 2, 1807
Livingston, H. Brockholst PatersonDec 13, 1806VCDec 17, 1806
Johnson, William MooreMar 22, 1804VCMar 24, 1804
President Adams, John
Marshall, John 19EllsworthJan 20, 1801VCJan 27, 1801
Jay, John 20EllsworthDec 18, 1800DDec 19, 1800
Moore, Alfred IredellDec 4, 1799VCDec 10, 1799
Washington, Bushrod WilsonDec 19, 1798VCDec 20, 1798
President Washington, George
Ellsworth, Oliver21JayMar 3, 179621-1CMar 4, 1796
Chase, Samuel BlairJan 26, 1796VCJan 27, 1796
Cushing, William 22JayJan 26, 1796DJan 27, 1796
Rutledge, John 23JayDec 10, 179510-14RDec 15, 1795
Paterson, William JohnsonMar 4, 1793VCMar 4, 1793
Paterson, William JohnsonFeb 27, 1793WFeb 28, 1793
Johnson, Thomas RutledgeOct 31, 1791VCNov 7, 1791
Iredell, James HarrisonFeb 8, 1790VCFeb 10, 1790
Blair, John Sep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
Wilson, James Sep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
Harrison, Robert Sep 24, 1789DSep 26, 1789
Cushing, William Sep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
Rutledge, John Sep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
Jay, John 24Sep 24, 1789VCSep 26, 1789
 
This chart lists only nominations officially submitted to the Senate, and does not include nominations announced but never officially submitted (such as Douglas Ginsburg in 1987).
 
The date of the nomination is the date on the president's letter to the Senate (except the undated 1937 Hugo Black letter). Some nominees may have been serving before this date under recess appointments.
 
Vote Key:Result Key:
89-7 No. 242 (for example) - Tally and roll call vote numberC - Confirmed and served (119) 25
V - Voice VoteD - Declined (7)
 N - No Action (10)
 P - Postponed (3)
 R - Rejected (12)
 W - Withdrawn (12)
 
  1. Nominated to chief justice.
  2. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  3. Nominated to chief justice.
  4. Sitting justice nominated to chief justice; nomination filibustered and withdrawn.
  5. Nominated to chief justice.
  6. Nominated to chief justice.
  7. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  8. Nominated to chief justice.
  9. Nominated to chief justice.
  10. Sitting justice elevated to chief justice.
  11. Nominated to chief justice.
  12. Nominated to chief justice.
  13. Unsuccessful nominee for chief justice.
  14. Unsuccessful nominee for chief justice.
  15. Confirmed, but died before he took office.
  16. Nominated to chief justice.
  17. On motion to proceed to consider the nomination, an objection was made.
  18. Nominated to chief justice.
  19. Nominated to chief justice.
  20. Nominated to chief justice.
  21. Nominated to chief justice.
  22. Sitting justice nominated to chief justice, but declined and continued to serve as an associate justice.
  23. Offered his services as a replacement for the soon-to-retire John Jay in June 1795, so President Washington offered him a temporary commission (Senate was in recess). The Senate convened in December and voted on the nomination, making Rutledge the first rejected Supreme Court nominee and the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  24. Nominated to chief justice.
  25. 7 nominees (see D in Result Key) were confirmed, but declined to serve.
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