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The Constitution prescribes that the Senate be composed of two senators from each State (therefore, the Senate currently has 100 Members) and that a senator must be at least thirty years of age, have been a citizen of the United States for nine years, and, when elected, be a resident of the State from which he or she is chosen. A senator's term of office is six years and approximately one-third of the total membership of the Senate is elected every two years.

Contacting Your Senator

Current Senators Contact List

Biographies and Congressional Profiles

Look up brief biographies of Senators from 1774 to the present in the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. You can find out other facts about Senators past and present and get an overview of the members of Congress using these links.

Featured Biographies

Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress

Guide to House and Senate Members (GPO)

Senate Spouses

Internal Organization of the Senate

Constitutional Qualifications for U.S. Senators

The Term of Senator:  When Does It Begin and End? (PDF)

Senate Oath of Office

Senate Reform Commission, July 29, 1975

Appointments, Elections, and Political Parties

Appointed Senators (1913-Present)

Senators Who Have Changed Parties (1890-Present)

Party Division in the Senate (1789-Present)

Salary and Benefits

Terms and Salaries, June 26, 1787

Salary Storm, March 19, 1816

Senate Salaries Since 1789

Congressional Salaries and Allowances  (CRS) (PDF)

Retirement Benefits for Members of Congress  (CRS) (PDF)

Bibliography on Books by Sitting Senators

Former Senators

Association of Former Members of Congress Web Page (

Living Former Senators, Alphabetically

Living Former Senators, by State

Senators Who Have Died since 2000

Senators Who Have Died in Office

Related Items

Interested in related materials? Take a look at these Virtual Reference Desk subjects and other links for more information.






Minorities in the Senate

Senators and Their States


Women in the Senate