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Senate Chamber Desks

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Desk 42 (XLII)

TitleDesk, Senate Chamber, 42 (XLII)
Artist/Makerafter T. Constantine & Co. (1817 - 1826) 
Date19th or early 20th century
MediumMahogany and mahogany veneer (primary)
Dimensions h. 36.12 x  w. 28.68 x  d. 20.12 in. ( h. 91.75 x  w. 72.86 x  d. 51.11 cm)
Credit LineU.S. Senate Collection
Accession Number66.00042.001

  • Object Description
  • This mahogany writing desk was made specifically for use in the Senate’s legislative chamber in the U.S. Capitol, and is one of 100 desks that are similarly constructed and used daily by senators. It features two shaped and fluted legs, a bookshelf supported by mahogany spindles, a drawer, a hinged writing top with storage, and a removable wooden tray for writing tools. Decorative enhancements, including figured mahogany veneers and circular roundels, reflect the designs of the original 48 desks created for the Senate in 1819 by the New York cabinetmaking firm T. Constantine & Co. Over the years, many senators have inscribed their names in the interior of the desk drawers, making each drawer a unique way of linking current and past desk users. Desk occupants can change every two years with a new Congress, and are based on seniority.

  • Artist/Maker
  • Thomas Constantine (1791–1849) was born in Derbyshire, England, and he and his family immigrated to New York City when he was two. Between 1806 and 1812, Constantine apprenticed with New York City cabinetmaker John Hewitt, and then served as a journeyman in the same shop between 1812 and 1814. Thomas opened his own cabinet shop in 1815, and in 1817 his firm, T. Constantine & Co., began competing with some of the city’s most notable furniture manufacturers.

    Constantine received his most celebrated commissions as Congress prepared to reoccupy the U.S. Capitol after it had been damaged by fires set by British soldiers in August 1814. In 1818, Constantine received a contract to provide the House of Representatives Chamber with carpets, wall hangings, lamps, 192 chairs, and 51 tables. The following year, Constantine was awarded a contract to furnish the Senate Chamber with 48 mahogany armchairs and desks, as well as other furnishings, lighting, and textiles. Constantine’s brother, John (1796–1845) is known to have assisted with the upholstery of the chairs made for both chambers.

    Although scholars consider Constantine’s work for the House and Senate to be the apex of his relatively brief career, T. Constantine & Co. produced furniture into the 1820s. He closed his furniture store in the summer of 1824 and furniture manufactory in 1826. Today furnishings by T. Constantine & Co. are represented in various collections, including the National Park Service, National Museum of American History, North Carolina Museum of History, U.S. House of Representatives, and Winterthur Museum.

    For more information on Thomas Constantine, see Matthew A. Thurlow, “Aesthetics, Politics, and Power in Early-Nineteenth-Century Washington: Thomas Constantine & Co.’s Furniture for the United States Capitol, 1818-1819" in American Furniture (Chipstone Foundation, 2006).

  • Desk Occupants
  • The senators' names listed in this table include both names inscribed in the desk drawer and, beginning with the 99th Congress, the names of all senators who occupied this desk.

    Order Senator State Party
    1ThompsonWilliam H. ThompsonKansasD Democrat
    2WolcottJosiah O. WolcottDelawareD Democrat
    3ErnstRichard P. ErnstKentuckyR Republican
    4CouzensJames CouzensMichiganR Republican
    5ShipsteadHenrik ShipsteadMinnesotaFL, R
    6AdamsAlva B. AdamsColoradoD Democrat
    7BinghamHiram BinghamConnecticutR Republican
    8GillettFrederick H. GillettMassachusettsR Republican
    9La FolletteRobert M. La Follette, Jr.WisconsinR, P
    10RobinsonArthur R. RobinsonIndianaR Republican
    11GoffGuy D. GoffWest VirginiaR Republican
    12GouldArthur R. GouldMaineR Republican
    13HatfieldHenry D. HatfieldWest VirginiaR Republican
    14KeanHamilton F. KeanNew JerseyR Republican
    15GoldsboroughPhillips L. GoldsboroughMarylandR Republican
    16MorrowDwight W. MorrowNew JerseyR Republican
    17BulowWilliam J. BulowSouth DakotaD Democrat
    18Van NuysFrederick Van NuysIndianaD Democrat
    19MurrayJames E. MurrayMontanaD Democrat
    20ChavezDennis ChavezNew MexicoD Democrat
    21MurdockOrrice A. Murdock, Jr.UtahD Democrat
    22MosesJohn MosesNorth DakotaD Democrat
    23HoeyClyde R. HoeyNorth CarolinaD Democrat
    24HollandSpessard L. HollandFloridaD Democrat
    25FrearJoseph A. Frear, Jr.DelawareD Democrat
    26ClementsEarle C. ClementsKentuckyD Democrat
    27BurkeThomas A. BurkeOhioD Democrat
    28MorseWayne L. MorseOregonR, I, D
    29EngleClair EngleCaliforniaD Democrat
    30SalingerPierre E. G. SalingerCaliforniaD Democrat
    31RussellDonald S. RussellSouth CarolinaD Democrat
    32HatfieldMark O. HatfieldOregonR Republican
    33GoldwaterBarry M. GoldwaterArizonaR Republican
    34RothWilliam V. Roth, Jr.DelawareR Republican
    35BrockWilliam E. Brock, IIITennesseeR Republican
    36HuddlestonWalter D. HuddlestonKentuckyD Democrat
    37MatsunagaSpark M. MatsunagaHawaiiD Democrat
    38BingamanJeff BingamanNew MexicoD Democrat
    39SanfordTerry SanfordNorth CarolinaD Democrat
    40FeinsteinDianne FeinsteinCaliforniaD Democrat
    41RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller, IVWest VirginiaD Democrat
    42RobbCharles S. RobbVirginiaD Democrat
    43FeinsteinDianne FeinsteinCaliforniaD Democrat
    44FeingoldRussell D. FeingoldWisconsinD Democrat
    45NelsonBill NelsonFloridaD Democrat
    46CarperThomas R. CarperDelawareD Democrat
    47SandersBernard SandersVermontI
    48HaganKay R. HaganNorth CarolinaD Democrat
    49LeeMike LeeUtahR Republican
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