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Senate Chamber Desks

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Desk 66 (LXVI)

TitleDesk, Senate Chamber, 66 (LXVI)
Artist/MakerT. Constantine and Co.
Date1819 ca.
Dimensions h. 35.25 x  w. 28.38 x  d. 19.69 in. ( h. 89.5 x  w. 72.1 x  d. 50 cm)
Credit LineU.S. Senate Collection
Accession Number66.00066.001

  • Object Description
  • This mahogany writing desk was made specifically for use in the Senate’s legislative chamber in the U.S. Capitol, and is one of 100 desks that are similarly constructed and used daily by senators. It features two shaped and fluted legs, a bookshelf supported by mahogany spindles, a drawer, a hinged writing top with storage, and a removable wooden tray for writing tools. Decorative enhancements, including figured mahogany veneers and circular roundels, reflect the designs of the original 48 desks created for the Senate in 1819 by the New York cabinetmaking firm T. Constantine & Co. Over the years, many senators have inscribed their names in the interior of the desk drawers, making each drawer a unique way of linking current and past desk users. Desk occupants can change every two years with a new Congress, and are based on seniority.

  • Artist/Maker
  • Thomas Constantine (1791–1849) was born in Derbyshire, England, and he and his family immigrated to New York City when he was two. Between 1806 and 1812, Constantine apprenticed with New York City cabinetmaker John Hewitt, and then served as a journeyman in the same shop between 1812 and 1814. Thomas opened his own cabinet shop in 1815, and in 1817 his firm, T. Constantine & Co., began competing with some of the city’s most notable furniture manufacturers.

    Constantine received his most celebrated commissions as Congress prepared to reoccupy the U.S. Capitol after it had been damaged by fires set by British soldiers in August 1814. In 1818, Constantine received a contract to provide the House of Representatives Chamber with carpets, wall hangings, lamps, 192 chairs, and 51 tables. The following year, Constantine was awarded a contract to furnish the Senate Chamber with 48 mahogany armchairs and desks, as well as other furnishings, lighting, and textiles. Constantine’s brother, John (1796–1845) is known to have assisted with the upholstery of the chairs made for both chambers.

    Although scholars consider Constantine’s work for the House and Senate to be the apex of his relatively brief career, T. Constantine & Co. produced furniture into the 1820s. He closed his furniture store in the summer of 1824 and furniture manufactory in 1826. Today furnishings by T. Constantine & Co. are represented in various collections, including the National Park Service, National Museum of American History, North Carolina Museum of History, U.S. House of Representatives, and Winterthur Museum.

    For more information on Thomas Constantine, see Matthew A. Thurlow, “Aesthetics, Politics, and Power in Early-Nineteenth-Century Washington: Thomas Constantine & Co.’s Furniture for the United States Capitol, 1818-1819" in American Furniture (Chipstone Foundation, 2006).

  • Desk Occupants
  • The senators' names listed in this table include both names inscribed in the desk drawer and, beginning with the 99th Congress, the names of all senators who occupied this desk.

    Order Senator State Party
    1GoffNathan GoffWest VirginiaR Republican
    2HustingPaul O. HustingWisconsinD Democrat
    3McNaryCharles L. McNaryOregonR Republican
    4StanfieldRobert N. StanfieldOregonR Republican
    5ErnstRichard P. ErnstKentuckyR Republican
    6CameronRalph H. CameronArizonaR Republican
    7MeansRice W. MeansColoradoR Republican
    8DeneenCharles S. DeneenIllinoisR Republican
    9du PontThomas C. du PontDelawareR Republican
    10GoffGuy D. GoffWest VirginiaR Republican
    11VareWilliam S. VarePennsylvaniaR Republican
    12CuttingBronson M. CuttingNew MexicoR Republican
    13ThomasJohn ThomasIdahoR Republican
    14HastingsDaniel O. HastingsDelawareR Republican
    15HebertFelix HebertRhode IslandR Republican
    16WhiteWallace H. White, Jr.MaineR Republican
    17Van NuysFrederick Van NuysIndianaD Democrat
    18ByrdHarry F. Byrd, Sr.VirginiaD Democrat
    19AdamsAlva B. AdamsColoradoD Democrat
    20MurrayJames E. MurrayMontanaD Democrat
    21GuffeyJoseph F. GuffeyPennsylvaniaD Democrat
    22FulbrightJames W. FulbrightArkansasD Democrat
    23HoeyClyde R. HoeyNorth CarolinaD Democrat
    24AndersonClinton P. AndersonNew MexicoD Democrat
    25HenningsThomas C. Hennings, Jr.MissouriD Democrat
    26TalmadgeHerman E. TalmadgeGeorgiaD Democrat
    27GrueningErnest GrueningAlaskaD Democrat
    28GurneyEdward J. GurneyFloridaR Republican
    29BeallJ. Glenn Beall, Jr.MarylandR Republican
    30DeConciniDennis W. DeConciniArizonaD Democrat
    31LevinCarl LevinMichiganD Democrat
    32PresslerLarry L. PresslerSouth DakotaR Republican
    33WarnerJohn WarnerVirginiaR Republican
    34ArmstrongWilliam L. ArmstrongColoradoR Republican
    35SymmsSteven D. SymmsIdahoR Republican
    36MurkowskiFrank H. MurkowskiAlaskaR Republican
    37BrownHank BrownColoradoR Republican
    38JeffordsJames M. JeffordsVermontR, I
    39LiebermanJoseph I. LiebermanConnecticutD, ID
    40MurphyChristopher MurphyConnecticutD Democrat
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