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Senate Chamber Desks

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Desk 74 (LXXIV)

TitleDesk, Senate Chamber, 74 (LXXIV)
Artist/Makerafter T. Constantine & Co. (1817 - 1826) 
Date19th or early 20th century
MediumMahogany, mahogany veneer and rosewood veneer (primary)
Dimensions h. 35.37 x  w. 27.87 x  d. 19.75 in. ( h. 89.85 x  w. 70.8 x  d. 50.16 cm)
Credit LineU.S. Senate Collection
Accession Number66.00074.001

  • Object Description
  • This mahogany writing desk was made specifically for use in the Senate’s legislative chamber in the U.S. Capitol, and is one of 100 desks that are similarly constructed and used daily by senators. It features two shaped and fluted legs, a bookshelf supported by mahogany spindles, a drawer, a hinged writing top with storage, and a removable wooden tray for writing tools. Decorative enhancements, including figured mahogany veneers and circular roundels, reflect the designs of the original 48 desks created for the Senate in 1819 by the New York cabinetmaking firm T. Constantine & Co. Over the years, many senators have inscribed their names in the interior of the desk drawers, making each drawer a unique way of linking current and past desk users. Desk occupants can change every two years with a new Congress, and are based on seniority.

  • Artist/Maker
  • Thomas Constantine (1791–1849) was born in Derbyshire, England, and he and his family immigrated to New York City when he was two. Between 1806 and 1812, Constantine apprenticed with New York City cabinetmaker John Hewitt, and then served as a journeyman in the same shop between 1812 and 1814. Thomas opened his own cabinet shop in 1815, and in 1817 his firm, T. Constantine & Co., began competing with some of the city’s most notable furniture manufacturers.

    Constantine received his most celebrated commissions as Congress prepared to reoccupy the U.S. Capitol after it had been damaged by fires set by British soldiers in August 1814. In 1818, Constantine received a contract to provide the House of Representatives Chamber with carpets, wall hangings, lamps, 192 chairs, and 51 tables. The following year, Constantine was awarded a contract to furnish the Senate Chamber with 48 mahogany armchairs and desks, as well as other furnishings, lighting, and textiles. Constantine’s brother, John (1796–1845) is known to have assisted with the upholstery of the chairs made for both chambers.

    Although scholars consider Constantine’s work for the House and Senate to be the apex of his relatively brief career, T. Constantine & Co. produced furniture into the 1820s. He closed his furniture store in the summer of 1824 and furniture manufactory in 1826. Today furnishings by T. Constantine & Co. are represented in various collections, including the National Park Service, National Museum of American History, North Carolina Museum of History, U.S. House of Representatives, and Winterthur Museum.

    For more information on Thomas Constantine, see Matthew A. Thurlow, “Aesthetics, Politics, and Power in Early-Nineteenth-Century Washington: Thomas Constantine & Co.’s Furniture for the United States Capitol, 1818-1819" in American Furniture (Chipstone Foundation, 2006).

  • Desk Occupants
  • The senators' names listed in this table include both names inscribed in the desk drawer and, beginning with the 99th Congress, the names of all senators who occupied this desk.

    Order Senator State Party
    1EllenderAllen J. EllenderLouisianaD Democrat
    2KilgoreHarley M. KilgoreWest VirginiaD Democrat
    3TunnellJames M. TunnellDelawareD Democrat
    4RosierJoseph RosierWest VirginiaD Democrat
    5O'DanielWilbert L. O'DanielTexasD Democrat
    6DoxeyWall DoxeyMississippiD Democrat
    7MaybankBurnet R. MaybankSouth CarolinaD Democrat
    8WalshArthur WalshNew JerseyD Democrat
    9McClellanJohn L. McClellanArkansasD Democrat
    10JacksonSamuel D. JacksonIndianaD Democrat
    11HallWilton E. HallSouth CarolinaD Democrat
    12SmithHoward A. SmithNew JerseyR Republican
    13MitchellHugh B. MitchellWashingtonD Democrat
    14BriggsFrank P. BriggsMissouriD Democrat
    15HartThomas C. HartConnecticutR Republican
    16KnowlandWilliam F. KnowlandCaliforniaR Republican
    17StanfillWillam A. StanfillKentuckyR Republican
    18McCarthyJoseph R. McCarthyWisconsinR Republican
    19ChapmanVirgil M. ChapmanKentuckyD Democrat
    20LehmanHerbert H. LehmanNew YorkD Democrat
    21BentonWilliam BentonConnecticutD Democrat
    22CooperJohn S. CooperKentuckyR Republican
    23BushPrescott S. BushConnecticutR Republican
    24HruskaRoman L. HruskaNebraskaR Republican
    25ScottHugh D. Scott, Jr.PennsylvaniaR Republican
    26KeatingKenneth B. KeatingNew YorkR Republican
    27SimpsonMilward L. SimpsonWyomingR Republican
    28DominickPeter H. DominickColoradoR Republican
    29GriffinRobert P. GriffinMichiganR Republican
    30SmithRalph T. SmithIllinoisR Republican
    31HansenClifford P. HansenWyomingR Republican
    32FongHiram L. FongHawaiiR Republican
    33BoggsJ. Caleb BoggsDelawareR Republican
    34PresslerLarry L. PresslerSouth DakotaR Republican
    35AndrewsMark AndrewsNorth DakotaR Republican
    36RockefellerJohn D. Rockefeller, IVWest VirginiaD Democrat
    37LiebermanJoseph I. LiebermanConnecticutD, ID
    38FeingoldRussell D. FeingoldWisconsinD Democrat
    39CoatsDaniel CoatsIndianaR Republican
    40FairclothLauch FairclothNorth CarolinaR Republican
    41GramsRod GramsMinnesotaR Republican
    42FristWilliam H. FristTennesseeR Republican
    43SmithGordon H. SmithOregonR Republican
    44CrapoMike CrapoIdahoR Republican
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