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Senators Representing Third or Minor Parties

HayneRobert Y. Hayne (SC) Nullifier 1831_18321831–1832
MillerStephen D. Miller (SC) Nullifier 1831_18331831–1833
CalhounJohn C. Calhoun (SC) Nullifier 1832_18371832–1837
PrestonWilliam C. Preston (SC) Nullifier 1833_18371833–1837
FrancisJohn B. Francis (RI) Law and Order 1844_18451844–1845
CilleyJoseph Cilley (NH) Liberty 1846_18471846–1847
HaleJohn P. Hale (NH) Independent Democrat 1847_18491847–1849
HaleJohn P. Hale (NH) Free Soil 1849_18531849–1853
ChaseSalmon P. Chase (OH) Free Soil 1849_18551849–1855
SumnerCharles Sumner (MA) Free Soil 1851_18551851–1855
BrainerdLawrence Brainerd (VT) Free Soil 1854_18551854–1855
GilletteFrancis Gillette (CT) Free Soil 1854_1855_11854–1855
HoustonSamuel Houston (TX) American (Know-Nothing) 1855_18591855–1859
BellJohn Bell (TN) American (Know-Nothing) 1857_18591857–1859
ThompsonJohn B. Thompson (KY) American (Know-Nothing) 1857_1859_11857–1859
CrittendenJohn J. Crittenden (KY) American (Know-Nothing) 1857_18611857–1861
KennedyAnthony Kennedy (MD) American (Know-Nothing) 1857_18611857–1861
KennedyAnthony Kennedy (MD) Unionist 1861_18631861–1863
WilleyWaitman T. Willey (WV) Unionist 1861_1863_11861–1863
CarlileJohn S. Carlile (VA) Unionist 1861_18651861–1865
DavisGarrett Davis (KY) Unionist 1861_1865_11861–1865
HendersonJohn B. Henderson (MO) Unionist 1862_18631862–1863
HicksThomas H. Hicks (MD) Unionist 1862_1863_11862–1863
WilsonRobert Wilson (MO) Unionist 1862_1863_21862–1863
WrightJoseph Albert Wright (IN) Unionist 1862_1863_31862–1863
BowdenLemuel J. Bowden (VA) Unionist 1863_18641863–1864
BrownBenjamin G. Brown (MO) Unconditional Unionist 1863_18651863–1865
HendersonJohn B. Henderson (MO) Unconditional Unionist 1863_1865_11863–1865
HicksThomas H. Hicks (MD) Unconditional Unionist 1863_1865_21863–1865
JohnsonReverdy Johnson (MD) Unionist 1863_1865_31863–1865
WilleyWaitman T. Willey (WV) Unconditional Unionist 1863_1865_41863–1865
Van WinklePeter G. Van Winkle (WV) Unconditional Unionist 1863_18671863–1867
CreswellJohn A. J. Creswell (MD) Unconditional Unionist 1865_1867_11865–1867
FowlerJoseph S. Fowler (TN) Unconditional Unionist 1865_1867_21865–1867
PattersonDavid T. Patterson (TN) Unionist 1865_1867_31865–1867
SchurzCarl Schurz (MO) Liberal Republican 1871_18751871–1875
SumnerCharles Sumner (MA) Liberal Republican 1873_18741873–1874
FentonReuben Eaton Fenton (NY) Liberal Republican 1873_18751873–1875
FerryOrris S. Ferry (CT) Liberal Republican 1873_1875_11873–1875
HamiltonMorgan C. Hamilton (TX) Liberal Republican 1873_1875_21873–1875
SpragueWilliam Sprague (RI) Liberal Republican 1873_1875_31873–1875
TiptonThomas W. Tipton (NE) Liberal Republican 1873_1875_41873–1875
BoothNewton Booth (CA) Independent Republican 1875_18771875–1877
DavisDavid Davis (IL) Independent 1877_18831877–1883
MahoneWilliam Mahone (VA) Readjuster 1881_18851881–1885
RiddlebergerHarrison H. Riddleberger (VA) Readjuster 1883_18851883–1885
PefferWilliam A. Peffer (KS) Populist 1891_18971891–1897
KyleJames H. Kyle (SD) Populist 1891_19011891–1901
AllenWilliam Vincent Allen (NE) Populist 1893_19011893–1901
StewartWilliam M. Stewart (NV) Silver 1893_1901_11893–1901
ButlerMarion Butler (NC) Populist 18951895–1901
JonesJohn P. Jones (NV) Silver 1895_1901_11895–1901
CannonFrank J. Cannon (UT) Silver Republican 1896_18991896–1899
MantleLee Mantle (MT) Silver Republican 1896_1899_11896–1899
PettigrewRichard F. Pettigrew (SD) Silver Republican 1896_19011896–1901
TellerHenry M. Teller (CO) Silver Republican 1896_1901_11896–1901
HeitfeldHenry Heitfeld (ID) Populist 1897_19011897–1901
TurnerGeorge Turner (WA) Silver Republican 1897_1901_11897–1901
HarrisWilliam A. Harris (KS) Populist 1897_19031897–1903
PoindexterMiles Poindexter (WA) Progressive 1913_19151913–1915
JohnsonMagnus Johnson (MN) Farmer–Labor 1923_19251923–1925
ShipsteadHenrik Shipstead (MN) Farmer–Labor 1923_19411923–1941
BensonElmer A. Benson (MN) Farmer–Labor 1935_19361935–1936
La FolletteRobert M. La Follette, Jr. (WI) Progressive 1935_19471935–1947
LundeenErnest Lundeen (MN) Farmer–Labor 1937_19401937–1940
NorrisGeorge W. Norris (NE) Independent 1937_19431937–1943
MorseWayne L. Morse (OR) Independent 1953_19551953–1955
ThurmondStrom Thurmond (SC) Independent Democrat 1954_19561954–1956
BuckleyJames L. Buckley (NY) Conservative 1977_19711971–1977
ByrdHarry F. Byrd, Jr. (VA) Independent 1983_19711971–1983
SmithRobert C. Smith (NH) Independent 1999_199919991
JeffordsJames M. Jeffords (VT) Independent 2001_20072001–20072
BarkleyDean Barkley (MN) Independent 2002–20032002–2003
LiebermanJoseph I. Lieberman (CT) Independent Democrat 1989–20131989–20133
SandersBernard Sanders (VT) Independent 2007_20072007–present
KingAngus S. King, Jr. (ME) Independent 2013_20132013–present

Total: 77 individuals (Three senators, John P. Hale, Anthony Kennedy, and Waitman T. Willey, each represented two third parties at different times.)

1 Smith announced his change from the Republican party on July 13, 1999. On November 1, 1999, he announced that he was changing back to Republican. He noted that, since his home town in New Hampshire had not yet changed his voter registration, he had technically never left the Republican party.

2 Jeffords announced his change on May 24, 2001, effective June 6, 2001, indicating that he would caucus with the Democratic party, thus changing control of the evenly divided Senate from the Republicans to the Democrats.

3 Lieberman was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 1988, and reelected in 1994 and 2000. In 2006, he lost the Democratic primary and chose to run as an Independent Democrat, winning the 2006 election under that party affiliation.

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