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Senators Representing Third or Minor Parties

The names of current senators appear in bold print.

  Name/State Party Years
Hayne, Robert Y. (SC) Nullifier 1831-1832
Miller, Stephen D. (SC) Nullifier 1831-1833
Calhoun, John C. (SC) Nullifier 1832-1837
Preston, William C. (SC) Nullifier 1833-1837
Francis, John B. (RI) Law and Order 1844-1845
Cilley, Joseph (NH) Liberty 1846-1847
Hale, John P. (NH) Independent Democrat 1847-1849
Hale, John P. (NH) Free Soil 1849-1853
Chase, Salmon P. (OH) Free Soil 1849-1855
Sumner, Charles (MA) Free Soil 1851-1855
Brainerd, Lawrence (VT) Free Soil 1854-1855
Gillette, Francis (CT) Free Soil 1854-1855
Wilson, Henry (MA) American 1855
Houston, Sam (TX) American 1855-1859
Bell, John (TN) American 1857-1859
Thompson, John B. (KY) American 1857-1859
Crittenden, John J. (KY) American 1857-1861
Kennedy, Anthony (MD) American 1857-1861
Kennedy, Anthony (MD) Unionist 1861-1863
Willey, Waitman T. (VA) Unionist 1861-1863
Carlile, John S. (VA) Unionist 1861-1865
Davis, Garrett (KY) Unionist 1861-1865
Henderson, John B. (MO) Unionist 1862-1863
Hicks, Thomas H. (MD) Unionist 1862-1863
Wilson, Robert (MO) Unionist 1862-1863
Wright, Joseph A. (IN) Unionist 1862-1863
Bowden, Lemuel J. (VA) Unionist 1863-1864
Brown, Benjamin Gratz (MO) Unconditional Unionist 1863-1865
Henderson, John B. (MO) Unconditional Unionist 1863-1865
Hicks, Thomas H. (MD) Unconditional Unionist 1863-1865
Johnson, Reverdy (MD) Unionist 1863-1865
Willey, Waitman T. (WV) Unconditional Unionist 1863-1865
Van Winkle, Peter G. (WV) Unconditional Unionist 1863-1867
Creswell, John A.J. (MD) Unconditional Unionist 1865-1867
Fowler, Joseph S. (TN) Unconditional Unionist 1865-1867
Patterson, David T. (TN) Unionist 1865-1867
Schurz, Carl (MO) Liberal Republican 1871-1875
Sumner, Charles (MA) Liberal Republican 1873-1874
Fenton, Reuben E. (NY) Liberal Republican 1873-1875
Ferry, Orris S. (CT) Liberal Republican 1873-1875
Hamilton, Morgan C. (TX) Liberal Republican 1873-1875
Sprague, William (RI) Liberal Republican 1873-1875
Tipton, Thomas W. (NE) Liberal Republican 1873-1875
Booth, Newton (CA) Independent Republican 1875-1877
Davis, David (IL) Independent 1877-1883
Mahone, William (VA) Readjuster 1881-1885
Riddleberger, Harrison H. (VA) Readjuster 1883-1885
Peffer, William A. (KS) Populist 1891-1897
Kyle, James H. (SD) Populist 1891-1901
Allen, William V. (NE) Populist 1893-1901
Stewart, William M. (NV) Silver 1893-1901
Butler, Marion (NC) Populist 1895-1901
Jones, John P. (NV) Silver 1895-1901
Cannon, Frank J. (UT) Silver Republican 1896-1899
Mantle, Lee (MT) Silver Republican 1896-1899
Pettigrew, Richard F. (SD) Silver Republican 1896-1901
Teller, Henry M. (CO) Silver Republican 1896-1901
Heitfeld, Henry (ID) Populist 1897-1901
Turner, George (WA) Silver Republican 1897-1901
Harris, William A. (KS) Populist 1897-1903
Poindexter, Miles (WA) Progressive 1913-1915
Johnson, Magnus (MN) Farmer-Labor 1923-1925
Shipstead, Henrik (MN) Farmer-Labor 1923-1941
Benson, Elmer A. (MN) Farmer-Labor 1935-1936
La Follette, Robert M. Jr. (WI) Progressive 1935-1947
Lundeen, Ernest (MN) Farmer-Labor 1937-1940
Norris, George W. (NE) Independent 1937-1943
Morse, Wayne L. (OR) Independent 1953-1955
Thurmond, J. Strom (SC) Independent Democrat 1954-1956
Buckley, James L. (NY) Conservative 1971-1977
Byrd, Harry F. Jr. (VA) Independent 1971-1983
Smith, Bob (NH) Independent 19991
Jeffords, James (VT) Independent 2001-20072
Barkley, Dean (MN) Independent 2002-2003
Lieberman, Joseph I. (CT) Independent Democrat 1989-20133
Sanders, Bernard (VT) Independent 2007-
King, Angus S. Jr. (ME) Independent 2013-

Total: 77 individuals (Three senators, John P. Hale, Anthony Kennedy, and Waitman T. Willey, each represented two third parties at different times.)

1 Smith announced his change from the Republican party on July 13, 1999. On November 1, 1999, he announced that he was changing back to Republican. He noted that, since his home town in New Hampshire had not yet changed his voter registration, he had technically never left the Republican party.

2 Jeffords announced his change on May 24, 2001, effective June 6, 2001, indicating that he would caucus with the Democratic party, thus changing control of the evenly divided Senate from the Republicans to the Democrats.

3 Lieberman was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 1988, and reelected in 1994 and 2000. In 2006, he lost the Democratic primary and chose to run as an Independent Democrat, winning the 2006 election under that party affiliation.