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War and Reorganization: 1941-1963

This collection of brief essays describes important events and personalities in Senate history, and highlights recurring themes in the Senate's institutional development during the years 1941 to 1963, when the U.S. fought a second world war and Congress reorganized (click on title for full story).


The Truman Committee
March 1, 1941

As the nation prepared for war, Senator Harry S. Truman of Missouri became convinced that waste and corruption in defense contracts hindered mobilization efforts.  With Truman in the lead, the Senate launched an investigation that ultimately saved the United States millions of dollars in defense costs.

 
Andrew Jackson Houston
June 2, 1941

Andrew Jackson Houston made history on June 2, 1941, when he became the oldest man ever to become a freshman United States senator. When Andrew was born, eighty-six years earlier, his father—Sam Houston—held the Texas U.S. Senate seat that his son would later occupy.

 
Churchill Addresses Congress
December 26, 1941

Just weeks after the fateful Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill addressed a joint session of Congress. Flashing his trademark "V" for victory sign, Churchill warned of dark days ahead.

 
The Senate Elects a Chaplain
October 10, 1942

The Senate elected the Reverend Frederick Brown Harris, pastor of Washington, D.C.'s Foundry Methodist Church, as its chaplain in 1942.  Harris served a total of 24 years—a record still unbroken—and guided and comforted members of the Senate through some of their most difficult days.

 
Arrests Compel Senate Quorum
November 14, 1942

In November 1942, a full-scale civil rights filibuster threatened to keep the Senate in session until Christmas. Frustrated, Democratic Majority Leader Alben Barkley decided the time had come to end the filibuster.  He ordered Sergeant at Arms Chelsey Jurney to round up the absent senators needed to provide a quorum.

 
Combat Tour for Senators
July 25, 1943

In the midst of World War II, a five-member Senate team began a controversial and potentially dangerous mission—to inspect U.S. military installations around the world for proper use of war materiel.  The 65-day trip took Senator Richard Russell and his team to England, North Africa, the Persian Gulf, India, China, and Australia.

 
A Woman Presides over the Senate
October 19, 1943

By 1943, Senator Hattie Caraway of Arkansas had become accustomed to breaking new ground in the Senate.  In 1932 she became the first woman elected to the Senate, and a year later the first women to chair a standing committee.  On October 19, 1943, Caraway formally took up the Senate gavel—the first woman to officially preside over the Senate.

 
Majority Leader Resigns
February 24, 1944

Senate Majority Leader Alben Barkley had been a loyal supporter of President Franklin Roosevelt's war-time agenda, but the two men disagreed on a $10 billion tax increase to fund the war effort.  When Roosevelt vetoed a compromise bill, Barkley resigned his leadership position in protest.

 
Death of a "Gentle Knight"
September 2, 1944

President Franklin Roosevelt referred to him as "the very perfect gentle knight of American progressive ideals."  George Norris, known as the "father of the Tennessee Valley Authority," was an independent-minded lawmaker who championed a progressive agenda that included farm relief and the conservation of natural resources.

 
A Senate Journal, 1943-1945
May 28, 1945

Allen Drury's Pulitzer-Prize-winning novel, Advise and Consent, is one of the best-known and well-loved political novels of the twentieth century.  Less known but even more valuable to students of Senate history is Drury's A Senate Journal, a correspondent's diary of Senate action from 1943 to 1945.

 
Democratic President Nominates Republican Senator to Supreme Court
September 18, 1945

In the summer of 1945, Justice Owen Roberts retired from the high court. This vacancy presented a political challenge to Harry Truman, who had been president for only three months. The seven remaining associate justices had gained their seats as Democratic appointees of President Franklin Roosevelt. In a gesture designed to improve relations with Republican congressional leaders, the new Democratic president decided to appoint a Republican.

 
Health Care Clash
April 2, 1946

On April 2, 1946, Montana Democrat James Murray convened his Committee on Education and Labor for the first hearing on comprehensive national health insurance. The committee's second-ranking Republican, Ohio senator Robert Taft, who immediately labeled the proposed legislation "socialistic." Opposition and Republican gains in the Senate delayed major health care legislation for another 18 years.

 
Senate Policy Committees Established
August 8, 1946

How would the Senate progress in the post-World War II era?  With the war-time policy agenda gone, policymaking in both houses of Congress seemed unorganized and ill-defined.  When the Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress recommended creating policy committees to shape legislation and provide leadership, the Senate took note and established the Democratic and Republican Policy Committees.

 
Presidential Succession Act
July 18, 1947

On July 18, 1947, President Harry Truman signed the Presidential Succession Act.  The original act of 1792 had placed the Senate president pro tempore and Speaker of the House in the line of succession, but in 1886 Congress had removed them.  The 1947 law reinserted those officials, but placed the Speaker ahead of the president pro tempore.

 
Member's Death Ends a Senate Predicament
August 21, 1947

Senator Theodore Bilbo had dominated politics in his home state of Mississippi for 40 years, but he gained national attention in the post-war years when his long-held views of white supremacy clashed with growing concerns over civil rights for African Americans.  His racist attitude and bigotted comments dominated his 1946 reelection campaign. A subsequent petition of protest and investigation left the Senate with a dilemma—what to do about Bilbo?

 
"Turnip Day" Session
July 26, 1948

President Harry Truman hoped to be reelected in November of 1948, but his opponent, New York Governor Thomas Dewey, seemed to be gaining more ground every day. Desperate times called for desperate measures. Speaking at the Democratic Convention in Philadelphia, Truman exercised his constitutional prerogative, much to the dismay of Senate Republicans, and called already adjourned Congress back into session.  The resulting "turnip session" helped reelect Harry Truman.

 
First Woman Elected to Both Houses of Congress
September 13, 1948

With her 1948 election to the U.S. Senate, Margaret Chase Smith of Maine became the first woman elected to both houses of Congress.  She served four successful terms in the Senate, braking barriers and setting precedents along the way.

 
Supreme Court Nominees Refuse to Testify
October 1, 1949

Today, Sherman Minton is remembered as the last member of the Senate, former or incumbent, to be appointed to the Supreme Court.  The Senate approved his 1949 court appointment, despite the fact that Minton had refused to testify before the Senate Judiciary Committee—which tells us more about the Senate in the late 1940s than it does about Minton.

 
"Communists in Government Service," McCarthy Says
February 9, 1950

The junior senator from Wisconsin delivered a routine Lincoln's birthday speech to the Women's Republican Club in Wheeling, West Virginia.  The result, however, was anything but routine. Claiming to have a list of 205 Communists who had infiltrated the State Department, Joseph McCarthy launched a four-year crusade with that speech, a crusade that tarnished the Senate, ruined careers, and ended in a Senate censure.

 
Kefauver Crime Committee Launched
May 3, 1950

The growth of organized crime syndicates in American cities led to a special Senate committee investigation, chaired by Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver. The first Senate hearing to receive extensive television coverage, the investigation exposed crime bosses and made Kefauver a household name.

 
A Declaration of Conscience
June 1, 1950

Just four months after Senator Joseph McCarthy delivered a speech that launched the career of "McCarthyism," Republican Senator Margaret Chase Smith of Maine voiced her opposition in a "Declaration of Conscience."

 
Overwork Makes the Senate Surly
August 19, 1950

“The Senate is beginning to show signs of overwork,” observed newspaper columnist Jack Anderson as the Senate continued working past its targeted adjournment date in 1950. “Sessions are growing longer,” he wrote, “and tempers shorter.” Tempers were so short, in fact, that a “gavel-bashing, name-calling clash" between 81-year-old Senator Kenneth McKellar and 71-year-old Representative Clarence Cannon "was broken up...just short of physical violence.”

 
Senate Donates Historic Desk
September 22, 1950

On the eve of World War II, a structural engineer determined the Senate Chamber to be unsafe, its 80-year-old ceiling over-stressed and poorly supported. The war-time emergency forced Congress to delay reconstruction, but renovation of the chamber began in 1949.  With a new design in place, one item—the historic walnut desk used by the presiding officer since 1859—did not fit the remodeled chamber's neoclassical scheme.

 
A Time of Uncertainty
September, 1951

It is a simple Senate document printed on cheap paper that is now darkening after a half century.  Twenty pages long, it lists eighty-six staff members who worked on the Senate floor or in related legislative support jobs during the year 1951.  The pamphlet includes a detailed description of their responsibilities along with their salary histories.  Missing, however, is an introduction to explain why this one-of-a-kind document was created in the first place.  The only hint as to its importance is a one-word warning on the cover: “Confidential.”  

 
A Doctor's Warning
February 3, 1951

Dr. George Calver, a navy physician, tended to the health of congressional members for 35 years, developing his "nine commandments of health" to keep his patients healthy and unstressed.

 
Arthur Vandenberg Dies
April 18, 1951

A Senate giant, Arthur Vandenberg died on April 18, 1951, ending an illustrious career that spanned three decades. Rejecting his earlier isolationist views, in 1945 Vandenberg announced his support for an internationalist foreign policy  built upon nonpartisan statesmanship. As chair of the Committee on Foreign Relations, he championed this philosophy through his support of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.

 
Constitutional Crisis Averted
May 3, 1951

When President Harry Truman fired General Douglas MacArthur for insubordination, a majority of the American people were furious.  Immensely popular, the general had a huge public following, while Truman's own popularity was on the skids. A series of Senate hearings cooled things down, however, allowing the public to see the wisdom of Truman's decision.

 
Independent Fights for Committee Assignments
January 13, 1953

When Oregon Senator Wayne Morse left the Republican party to become an independent, he thought his eight years of seniority would maintain his place on prized Senate committees.  Senate leadership had something else in mind.

 
Wayne Morse Sets Filibuster Record
April 24-25, 1953

Known as the "Tiger of the Senate," Independent Wayne Morse spoke continuously for 22 hours and 26 minutes against a Tidelands oil bill, setting a new filibuster record.

 
Senator Lester Hunt's Decision
June 8, 1954

In the early 1950s, Senator Joseph McCarthy's politics of fear victimized many people. Chief among them was Wyoming Senator Lester Hunt.

 
"Have You No Sense of Decency?"
June 9, 1954

Joseph McCarthy's crusade against communist infiltrators finally ended in a Senate censure in 1954. For four years, the junior senator from Wisconsin terrorized witnesses and silenced colleagues. When he took on the army in a spectacle known to history as the Army-McCarthy hearings, however, he met his match in Boston lawyer Joseph Welch.  

 
Senator Elected on a Write-in Ballot
November 2, 1954

On November 2, 1954, Strom Thurmond became the first person ever elected to the Senate on a write-in ballot, winning with 63 percent of the vote.  Senator Burnet Maybank, who had already won his party's nomination for a full third term, died in September 1954, and the party chose not to hold a special primary for his replacement, designating a replacement candidate instead. At that point, 51-year-old former Governor Strom Thurmond announced his intention to run as a write-in candidate.

 
The Senate's New Gavel
November 17, 1954

It is one of the Senate's most precious artifacts: the historic Senate gavel. It fell to pieces during a heated late-night debate in 1954, when Vice President Richard Nixon repeatedly tapped it on the presiding officer's desk. With the old gavel in ruins, the Senate was forced to find a new instrument to maintain order and decorum in the Senate Chamber.

 
Alben Barkley Delivers Immortal Farewell Address
April 30, 1956

Seventy-eight-year-old Alben Barkley, former majority leader and vice president, now a junior senator once again, delivered a rousing speech. As the crowd roared its approval, the elder statesman collapsed to the floor.

 
Congress Approves the Federal-Aid Highway Act
June 26, 1956

On June 26, 1956, the Senate and House both approved a conference report on the Federal-Aid Highway Act (also known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act). President Eisenhower usually gets the credit for building the interstate highway system, which has been named in his honor, but that version of the story omits the critical role played by Congress.

 
Dirksen Building Cornerstone
July 13, 1956

In 1909, the Senate's first permanent office building opened, later named for Senator Richard Russell of Georgia. By the 1940s, it became clear that even the large Russell Building would not provide enough space to accommodate the growing Congress and its staff. At the beginning of World War II, plans were put in place for a second building—later named the Everett Dirksen Senate Office Building.

 
Escaping the Summer's Heat
July 27, 1956

"No good legislation ever comes out of Washington after June," commented John Nance Garner.  No doubt Vice President Garner referred to the effect of the intense summer heat in the nation's capital.  For many years, senators hoped to adjourn before August to avoid the "dog days" of summer.  In 1956, they succeeded.

 
The First Televised Presidential Debate
November 4, 1956

Which presidential campaign produced the first nationally televised debate? The typical answer to that question is 1960, Kennedy v. Nixon. In fact, the first televised debate occurred four years earlier, when Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson challenged incumbent Republican president Dwight Eisenhower—but those two men did not appear in the debate. Instead, on November 4, 1956, two surrogates debated the issues on network television.

 
"Citadel"
January 1957

In January 1957, the chief congressional correspondent of the New York Times, William S. White, published a book entitled  "Citadel: The Story of the U.S. Senate."  An immediate best-seller, Citadel soon became one of the most influential books ever written about the Senate.

 
Senator William Proxmire
August 27, 1957

On August 27, 1957, Democrat William Proxmire won a landslide victory to fill the Senate seat recently vacated by the death of Republican senator Joseph McCarthy. Wisconsin had not elected a Democrat to the Senate in the past 25 years.

 
Sputnik Spurs Passage of the National Defense Education Act
October 4, 1957

On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union shocked the people of the United States by successfully launching the first Earth orbiting satellite, Sputnik. During the Cold War, Americans until that moment had felt protected by their technological superiority. Suddenly the nation found itself lagging behind the Russians in the Space Race, and Americans worried that their educational system was not producing enough scientists and engineers. Sometimes, however, a shock to the system can open political opportunities.

 
Mid-term Revolution
September 8, 1958

"As Maine goes, so goes the nation." This old slogan, based on Maine's practice of holding its elections in September, two months before the rest of the nation, applied for the last time in 1958. That state's 1958 midterm congressional election proved to be a dramatically foreshadowing event.

 
The "Famous Five"
March 12, 1959

An enthusiastic crowd gathered in the Senate Reception Room, an ornate meeting room just outside the Senate Chamber, to see five former senators inducted into a Senate "hall of fame."  As Senator John F. Kennedy explained, selecting those five illustrious senators had been quite a task.

 
Taft Bell Tower Dedicated
April 14, 1959

Republican Leader Robert A. Taft, who had served in the Senate since 1939, died in office on July 31, 1953. Six years later, a simple but elegant memorial—the Taft Bell Tower—was dedicated to honor the former leader.

 
Cabinet Nomination Defeated
June 19, 1959

When Republican President Eisenhower nominated Lewis Strauss to be secretary of commerce in October of 1958, neither the president nor his supporters in Congress expected any serious opposition. Then came the November 4, 1958, election and new Democratic strength in the Senate.

 
"Wild Bill"
November 8, 1959

North Dakota Republican William Langer was one of the 20th century's most colorful United States senators. In 1959, he was described as "tempestuous," "swashbuckling," and "thoroughly unpredictable in his actions and attitudes."

 
U.S. Senators and Their World
October 1, 1960

Following World War II, scholars and journalists took a searching new look at the U.S. Senate. They saw the Senate as a counterbalance to a presidency whose powers had been sharply inflated under the guise of wartime emergency. Of the resulting books, one of the most influential was entitled U.S. Senators and Their World.

 
Two Senators to the White House
November 1960

In November 1960 two incumbent senators resigned to take on new responsibilities as president and vice president of the United States. Senators John F. Kennedy and Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson won the presidential election of 1960 with 49.7 percent of the popular vote against 49.6 percent for Vice President Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge—both former senators.

 
Lyndon Johnson Dethroned
January 3, 1961

The 1960 presidential elections made Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson president—of the Senate. As vice president-elect, Johnson experienced decidedly mixed feelings about giving up a post in which he had thrived during the mid-1950s. Having fallen short in his quest for the White House, he set out to refashion the vice presidency into his own image.

 
"The Ev and Charlie Show"
January 24, 1961

In January of 1961, Republicans leaders in the House and Senate–in an attempt to maintain their influence in a Democratic administration–created a joint leadership team. Each week, GOP leaders met behind closed doors. Afterwards, the House and Senate minority leaders held a joint press conference. Officially, this presentation was known as the “Republican Congressional Leadership Statement,” but everyone called it “The Ev and Charlie Show.”

 
"Battle of the Octogenarians"
Spring, 1962

Perennial tensions between the Senate and House of Representatives exploded with unusual force late in 1961. The conflagration continued throughout 1962, blocking all major appropriations bills. Fueling this explosion was deep-seated House resentment of Senate prerogatives. At the start of the 1962 session, this institutional confrontation involved fundamental questions—unresolved after 170 years of congressional operations.

 
Hollywood on the Hill
March 20, 1962

Throughout the fall of 1961 Otto Preminger and his film crew swarmed over Capitol Hill.  Some of Hollywood's biggest stars—Walter Pidgeon, Gene Tierney, and Charles Laughton—graced the halls of the Capitol and the old Senate office building. Even a few real-life senators got into the spirit and appeared as extras in the acclaimed film, Advise and Consent.

 
S-207—The Mike Mansfield Room
April 2, 1962

Room S-207 in the U.S. Capitol, better known as the Mike Mansfield Room, has been the site of many a festive occasion since its creation in 1962. The very first reception held in the elegant paneled room attracted Washington's elite, from Capitol Hill and the White House.

 
Turning Point
August 14, 1962

During the summer of 1962, the Senate stayed in session all summer long. The COMSAT bill provided the subject for debate, and cloture became the topic of the summer. The successful cloture vote on August 14, 1962, heralded new changes to the custom of filibustering and ending debate.

 
"The Uncrowned King of the Senate"
January 1, 1963

On January 1, 1963, illness unexpectedly claimed the life of Oklahoma senator Robert S. Kerr. Kerr was known as "The Uncrowned King of the Senate."

 
Smile: Photographing the Senate in Session
September 24, 1963

Senate Rule IV prohibits the taking of photographs in the Senate Chamber. On rare occasions, however, the entire membership of the Senate has posed for an official portrait.

 
 
  

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