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Senators Representing Third or Minor Parties

The names of current senators appear in bold print.

Hayne, Robert Y. (SC)Nullifier1831-1832
Miller, Stephen D. (SC)Nullifier1831-1833
Calhoun, John C. (SC)Nullifier1832-1837
Preston, William C. (SC)Nullifier1833-1837
Francis, John B. (RI)Law and Order1844-1845
Cilley, Joseph (NH)Liberty1846-1847
Hale, John P. (NH)Independent Democrat1847-1849
Hale, John P. (NH)Free Soil1849-1853
Chase, Salmon P. (OH)Free Soil1849-1855
Sumner, Charles (MA)Free Soil1851-1855
Brainerd, Lawrence (VT)Free Soil1854-1855
Gillette, Francis (CT)Free Soil1854-1855
Wilson, Henry (MA)American1855
Houston, Sam (TX)American1855-1859
Bell, John (TN)American1857-1859
Thompson, John B. (KY)American1857-1859
Crittenden, John J. (KY)American1857-1861
Kennedy, Anthony (MD)American1857-1861
Kennedy, Anthony (MD)Unionist1861-1863
Willey, Waitman T. (VA)Unionist1861-1863
Carlile, John S. (VA)Unionist1861-1865
Davis, Garrett (KY)Unionist1861-1865
Henderson, John B. (MO)Unionist1862-1863
Hicks, Thomas H. (MD)Unionist1862-1863
Wilson, Robert (MO)Unionist1862-1863
Wright, Joseph A. (IN)Unionist1862-1863
Bowden, Lemuel J. (VA)Unionist1863-1864
Brown, Benjamin Gratz (MO)Unconditional Unionist1863-1865
Henderson, John B. (MO)Unconditional Unionist1863-1865
Hicks, Thomas H. (MD)Unconditional Unionist1863-1865
Johnson, Reverdy (MD)Unionist1863-1865
Willey, Waitman T. (WV)Unconditional Unionist1863-1865
Van Winkle, Peter G. (WV)Unconditional Unionist1863-1867
Creswell, John A.J. (MD)Unconditional Unionist1865-1867
Fowler, Joseph S. (TN)Unconditional Unionist1865-1867
Patterson, David T. (TN)Unionist1865-1867
Schurz, Carl (MO)Liberal Republican1871-1875
Sumner, Charles (MA)Liberal Republican1873-1874
Fenton, Reuben E. (NY)Liberal Republican1873-1875
Ferry, Orris S. (CT)Liberal Republican1873-1875
Hamilton, Morgan C. (TX)Liberal Republican1873-1875
Sprague, William (RI)Liberal Republican1873-1875
Tipton, Thomas W. (NE)Liberal Republican1873-1875
Booth, Newton (CA)Independent Republican1875-1877
Davis, David (IL)Independent1877-1883
Mahone, William (VA)Readjuster1881-1885
Riddleberger, Harrison H. (VA)Readjuster1883-1885
Peffer, William A. (KS)Populist1891-1897
Kyle, James H. (SD)Populist1891-1901
Allen, William V. (NE)Populist1893-1901
Stewart, William M. (NV)Silver1893-1901
Butler, Marion (NC)Populist1895-1901
Jones, John P. (NV)Silver1895-1901
Cannon, Frank J. (UT)Silver Republican1896-1899
Mantle, Lee (MT)Silver Republican1896-1899
Pettigrew, Richard F. (SD)Silver Republican1896-1901
Teller, Henry M. (CO)Silver Republican1896-1901
Heitfeld, Henry (ID)Populist1897-1901
Turner, George (WA)Silver Republican1897-1901
Harris, William A. (KS)Populist1897-1903
Poindexter, Miles (WA)Progressive1913-1915
Johnson, Magnus (MN)Farmer-Labor1923-1925
Shipstead, Henrik (MN)Farmer-Labor1923-1941
Benson, Elmer A. (MN)Farmer-Labor1935-1936
La Follette, Robert M., Jr. (WI)Progressive1935-1947
Lundeen, Ernest (MN)Farmer-Labor1937-1940
Norris, George W. (NE)Independent1937-1943
Morse, Wayne L. (OR)Independent1953-1955
Thurmond, J. Strom (SC)Independent Democrat1954-1956
Buckley, James L. (NY)Conservative1971-1977
Byrd, Harry F., Jr. (VA)Independent1971-1983
Smith, Bob (NH)Independent19991
Jeffords, James (VT)Independent2001-20072
Barkley, Dean (MN)Independent2002-2003
Lieberman, Joseph I. (CT)Independent Democrat1989-20133
Sanders, Bernard (VT)Independent2007-
King, Angus S., Jr. (ME)Independent2013-

Total: 77 individuals (Three senators, John P. Hale, Anthony Kennedy, and Waitman T. Willey, each represented two third parties at different times.)

1 Smith announced his change from the Republican party on July 13, 1999. On November 1, 1999, he announced that he was changing back to Republican. He noted that, since his home town in New Hampshire had not yet changed his voter registration, he had technically never left the Republican party.

2 Jeffords announced his change on May 24, 2001, effective June 6, 2001, indicating that he would caucus with the Democratic party, thus changing control of the evenly divided Senate from the Republicans to the Democrats.

3 Lieberman was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate in 1988, and reelected in 1994 and 2000. In 2006, he lost the Democratic primary and chose to run as an Independent Democrat, winning the 2006 election under that party affiliation.